Windows Foundation



1、 Hardware overview

1. The development of computer

  1. Abacus
  2. Adder (the first mechanical computer in the world, from France)
  3. The rapid development of computers during World War II (Germany)
  4. Today’s computers are all VLSI

2. Types of computers

According to the calculation speed, the scale is divided as follows:

  • Microcomputer

    • Brand machine: Huawei, Dell, Lenovo
    • Compatible machine: assembly machine
  • Minicomputer: server for office

  • Mainframe: server for district or school

  • Supercomputer (billions of times)

    • Tianhe series
    • Shenwei the light of Taihu Lake
    • Summit
    • Tianhe-3 is under development (million times)

3. Computer system (von Neumann system)

Divide the computer into two partsInput device, output device, controller, arithmetic unit, memoryFive major parts

Von Neumann architecture:

  • Binary system is used to store data and code
  • Data and code are stored together, and there is no difference between the two
  • The memory in a computer is addressed in a linear one-dimensional way

4. Common units

  • Bit: bit (MB / s)
  • Byte: byte (MB / s)

One Chinese character takes up two bytes (in UTF-8, one Chinese character takes up three bytes)

2、 Common hardware devices

1. CPU classification

1. Two common brands

Intel: good compatibility, good stability and high price

AMD: with high cost performance, it is generally the first choice for game lovers

2. According to the number of CPU cores, it can be divided into
  • Mononuclear
  • Multi core: dual core, four core, eight core

2. Motherboard

It’s an integrated circuit board. The skeleton of a computer

1. Slot: CPU slot, power supply, PCI slot, PCI-E slot, various card slots
2. Power supply: used to stabilize the voltage and supply power to the main board
3. CMOS power supply: it is used to save the settings in the BIOS (the most common is the date and time of the computer, and the power on password. If you forget the password, you can restore it by discharging the CMOS)
4. Bus: the common communication line on the main board
5. North south bridge chip:

  • Nanqiao: it mainly manages the communication between input and output devices
  • Beiqiao: in charge of memory, hard disk, CPU and other large storage devices

3. External memory (external memory, optional)

Hard disk, optical disk (the difference between physical structure and hard disk), floppy disk, magnetic tape, U disk, mobile hard disk

4. Memory

Memory is used to store some data exchanged with CPU and cache

  • Ram: random access memory. Optional, but the data does not exist when the power is off (memory)
  • ROM: read only memory. Can only read, can’t write, data is still in (hard disk) after power failure

Kingston 16g 600 (more expensive than hard disk, faster than hard disk, different material)

In the following description of ROM and ram, the correct one is (c)
a) ROM can read and write while the system is working
b) After the ROM chip is powered down, the contents stored in the chip will be lost
c) Ram is random access memory
d) After the RAM chip is powered down, the contents stored in the chip will not be lost

5. Mainstream hard disk types

Hard disk

The hard disk is a rectangular box, which is read and written in a ring. Manchester technology used. Vacuum technology is adopted

1. By technology:
  • Mechanical hard disk: traditional hard disk (HDD)
  • SSD: new technology (SSD)
  • IDE hard disk: previous old interface hard disk, does not support hot plug
  • SCSI hard disk: now the new hard disk interface, faster, support hot plug
3. In terms of speed:
  • 7200 RPM / s: generally used for desktop, large space, good heat dissipation
  • 5400 RPM / s: generally used for notebook, small space, good heat dissipation

Western data, Seagate 500g 160

​ 1B = 8bit
​ 1KB = 1024B
​ 1MB = 1024KB
​ 1GB = 1024MB
​ 1TB = 1024GB

16GB, but not so much?
16000000/1024 = 15.6G

6. Network card

There must be a network card to access the Internet. The network card is also called network adapter, which is divided into built-in network card and external network card

7. Sound card, video card

Graphics card: for display

Sound card: converts the sound signal in video and audio into digital signal, which can be heard through earphone or speaker. Realize the conversion of sound information and digital signal, so as to hear the sound

8. Optical drive

CDs are mainly used to store photos

CD-ROM drive is mainly divided into CD-DVD drive, DVD, recorder

CD is divided into one-time CD (can only be written once), the price is about 1 yuan, 2 pieces, read and write CD for many times, the price is about 3 yuan

Can be built-in optical drive and external optical drive

9. I / O device (input / output device)

Input devices: keyboard, mouse, scanner, speech recognition device, handwriting recognition device, fingerprint recognition device, face recognition device

Input device: monitor, printer, speaker, earphone

10. Interface

Serial interface (COM interface): transmit bit by bit in sequence. Low cost and slow speed

Parallel interface (USB, LPT interface): 8-bit or 16 bit transmission, high cost and high speed

P3 / 2 interface: the old keyboard and mouse interface

1394 interface: CD-ROM, CD-ROM


BIOS overview: basic input / output system

1. Management function

Power-on Self-Test

Initialization of hardware information

Guidance system

Control of data transmission for I / O equipment

2. BIOS classification

Desktop (delete key to enter)

Different notebook manufacturers (F1, F2, F8, FN +…)

3. Uedi and legacy

UEFI is a new BIOS, legacy is a traditional BIOS

UEFI only supports 64 bit system, and the disk partition must be GPT mode. In recent years, windows PCs are generally pre installed with 64 bit system, so BIOS is generally UEFI

4. Basic BOS configuration

The basic functions of BIOS manufacturers are the same, and the personalized functions and interfaces are very different

  • Basic hardware information view
    • Basic hardware information
    • Temperature information of hardware
  • Startup options
    • Start up sequence
    • Start the device
  • Power management
    • Definition method
  • Password
    • power-on password
    • Advanced (BIOS) password
  • Other configurations
    • Memory tuning
    • Overclocking
    • Integrated graphics card memory allocation
5. Possible problems caused by Bois

Memory tuning leads to system instability

The operating system cannot be installed due to virus protection

Device conflict caused by hardware interrupt setting

3、 File system

1. What is a file system?

How disk stores files and organizes directories

The following information about the main storage of the file system is wrong
a) Available information of the disk, including occupied and remaining space
b) Properties of files and directories
c) The exact address and link information of files and directories on disk
d) Partition and format information of disk

2. Zoning

1. Advantages of Zoning:
  • security
  • Easy to find
  • Easy to manage
2. Partition type
  • MBR (traditional partition format)
    • Primary disk partition (up to 4 on a hard disk, and the partition size is not more than 2t)
    • Extended disk partition (one hard disk at most, which needs to be divided into logical partitions to be used)
    • Logical partition (several)
  • GPT (new partition format)
    • It solves the problem of four main partitions in MBR and the size of main partition is not more than 2T.
    • In GPT, the maximum number of primary partitions is 128, and there is no limit on the size of the primary partition

MBR main boot sector: 0 cylinder 0 head 1 sector
Cylinder: a numbered surface with the same head
Magnetic head:
Sector: the smallest physical storage unit of the system. The sector is generally 512 bytes
Cluster: the smallest management unit (logical concept) of DOS to file system. Continuous sectors are called clusters. Only one file can be stored in a cluster.

3. Common file systems

  • Windows

    • Fat: good compatibility, generally used for small storage devices (U disk, flash disk)

      • FAT16: file size cannot exceed 4G
      • FAT32: file size cannot exceed 16g
    • NTFS 4.0 / 5.0: there is no limit on file size, and it is generally used for large storage devices (hard disk, memory)

    Difference between fat and NTFS:

  1. Fat limits the size of a single file
  2. NTFS is more secure and can set password
  • Linux
    • EXT2/3
  • OS/2
    • HPFS
  • Apple
    • HFS
    • APFS

4. Configuration information

1. Ini configuration file

​ System.ini (manage computer hardware)

​ Win.ini (manage desktop and Applications)

​ Boot.ini (Management boot)

Problems: management confusion, size limit 64K, security

2. Registry (regedit. Exe)

​ Registry: a database that stores computer configuration

Run – > regedit

Run → CMD → ipconfig to view IP address

Substitution of INI file

​ Data storage of computer configuration information

​ Profile per user

​ The programs installed on your computer and the types of documents each program can create

​ Property settings of folder and program icons

​ Existing hardware in the system

3. Modify the IE default page pointing ☼

4、 File types and DOS commands

1. Documents

Naming method (file name + suffix)

2. Path

. folder (current directory)

… folder (upper level directory)

  • Absolute path: C::? Windows? System32? Regedit.exe
  • Relative path: regedit.exe

3. File properties

To view properties: right click file → properties

  • Read only: read only, not write
  • Hiding: hiding files
  • System: system files
  • Archive: easy to manage
  • be careful

Read only and hidden can be modified in GUI interface

The system and archive cannot be modified in Gui, but can be modified in DOS

4. File type

Suffix (executable): exe, com

Txt: text file

Bat: batch file (including files with multiple DOS commands)

VBS: script file

WSH: script file

SH: shell script file

Py: Python script file

Exe: executable file

Ini: configuration file

Sys: system file (driver file)

Bak: backing up files

5. Modify the default file opening mode: ☼

​ Right click file → properties → open mode

6. DOS command


Disk operating system. It’s part of the windows system

2. Common DOS commands

EX1. In DOS command, the following incorrect description of wildcard is (CD) (multiple choice)

a) “*”: replace 0 or more characters

b)“?”: Replace 1 character

c) “*”: replaces one or more characters

d)“?”: Replace 0 or 1 characters

7. Port occupancy

In case of port occupation, how to check by command?

1. First, query the process netstat – ano | findstr 3306 corresponding to the port

2. According to the process PID to find the corresponding application name tasklist | findstr process number

3. Kill process taskkill / PID process number

5、 Batch processing

A file consisting of one or more lines of DOS commands. Files with suffix. Bat or. CMD are called batch files.

In order. It is executed by DOS or windows command interpreter.

1. What is the role of batch processing
  1. Batch processing command and task

  2. Timed task after processing

2. Batch file creation:

Open Notepad > input content > Save as. Bat file

Echo: echo command. There are two values of on and off

Pause: pause the display

CTRL + C: abort batch command

REM: Note

Goto: statement flow control command

@echo off

REM this is the usage of goto that we are going to learn

goto test2


Echo this is the first module to query who has occupied 3306

netstat -ano|findstr 3306


Echo this is the second module, which is used to display the QQ process number

tasklist|findstr QQ



Echo this is the third module, which is used to display, ha ha. Let’s clear the screen again




Call: call other batch files

@echo off

Let’s learn the function of call

call H:\zhtest\b.bat


If statement:

@echo off


Echo my batch program starts


Echo — program menu———

Echo 1, Notepad

Echo 2, calculator

Echo please select the menu item:

Set / p a = set / P: used to receive a data; Set / A is used for calculation

Echo you have selected in the screen as% a%


If %a%==1 notepad

If %a%==2 calc

6、 TCP / IP overview and windows configuration

1. TCP / IP overview

Which of the following TCP / IP protocols does ex.icmp belong to (b)

a) Network interface layer(link layer)

b) Internet layer (network layer)

c) Transport layer

d) Application layer

2. Hierarchy

1. OSI model (open system interconnection model)

It is divided into seven layers from bottom to top

physical layer: selection of transmission medium. The unit of data is called bit

data link layer: how to format data for transmission. The unit of data is called frame

network layer: addressing and routing. Data unit: packet

Transport layer: add transport protocol and port. Data is called segments

Conversation layer: establish data transmission path.

Presentation layer: ensure that the information sent by the application layer of one system can be read by the application layer of another system.

application layer: application.

  • application layer
  • Transport layer
  • Internet layer
  • Network interface layer
3. Common TCP port numbers
  • ftp:21

  • Telnet:23

  • SMIP:25

  • DNS:53

  • http:80

  • POP3 mail protocol: 110

4. Network interface layer (link layer)

ARP: forward address resolution protocol. It realizes the resolution from IP address to MAC address

RARP: reverse address resolution protocol. The implementation is MAC → IP address resolution

5. Internet layer (network layer)

IP: Internet Protocol

ICMP: control message protocol

6. Transport layer

TCP: connection oriented, reliable. The speed is slower than UDP

UDP: unreliable, no connection. Fast

7. Application layer

FTP file transfer protocol; 21 ports

Telnet remote login; 23 port

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; 25 ports

HTTP hypertext transfer protocol; 80 port

POP3 receive mail transmission protocol; 110 port

3. IP address

IP address = network number + host number

4. IP Classification and rules

1.IP address is divided into five categories, namely a, B, C, D and E

Class A: 8 network numbers and 24 host numbers

0 0000011 011011 00000011 00010001 (binary representation)

0 0000001 1

0 1111110 126

Note: originally, the maximum network number is 127 (0 1111111), but since 127 is a loopback address, it can only take 126

BClass: 16 bit network number + 16 bit host number

10000011 011011 00000011 00010001 (binary representation)

10 000000 128

10 111111 191

Class C: 26 network bits + 8 host numbers

100 00011 01101011 00000011 00010001(binary representation)

110 00000 192

110 11111 223

2. Logical operator:

And: only if both sides are 1, the result is 1

Or: as long as one is 1, the result is 1, and two are 0 at the same time, the result is 0

Not: negate

3.Subnet mask:

Class a default subnet mask:

Class B default subnet mask:

Class C:

4. How to judge whether two IP addresses are in the same subnet

Host a: IP = subnet mask =

Host B: IP = subnet mask =

Steps of judgment:

1. Convert IP address and subnet mask to binary 00111101 00110000 10100111 00011001 00111101 00110000 10100111 11100000 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000

2. The IP address and subnet mask are combined bit by bit 00111101 00110000 10100111 00011001

​ 00111101 00110000 10100111 11100000 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000


3. Get the subnet number and judge whether it is equal or not

7、 Network settings, DNS, email

1. Virtual machine physical machine has three network modes

Bridge physical network card

  1. Bridging is to connect the physical machine to the Internet as a network card. Therefore, as long as the physical machine can access the Internet, the virtual machine must be able to access the Internet.

  2. Virtual machine can not only access the Internet, but also access the host with the same physical network segment.


Communicate with physical machine through VMnet8 virtual network card. Generally used for virtual machine and physical machine communication, automatic acquisition of IP can share physical machine IP networking

  1. In NAT mode, virtual machine shares IP with physical machine to access Internet

  2. In NAT mode, virtual machine can’t communicate with IP of physical machine and network segment

Host only – VMnet1

VMnet1 virtual network card is used to communicate with physical machine, which is only used to communicate with host (physical machine)

DNS server:

Domain name solution server. The realization is the domain name solution Xincheng IP address

Hosts file:

It is a system file without extension, which can be opened with notepad and other tools. Its function is to establish an association “database” between some commonly used URL domain names and their corresponding IP addresses.

The system will first automatically find the corresponding IP address from the hosts file. Once it is found, the system will immediately open the corresponding web page. If it is not found, the system will submit the web address to the DNS domain name resolution server for IP address resolution

The file path is C: windows, system32, drivers, etc

2. DNS solution process: ★

  1. First understand the local hosts file

  2. Resolving DNS server local cache file

  3. DNS server for resolution

  4. DNS root server

3. DNS server building steps:

  1. Install DNS components (control panel) – add or remove programs (components)

  2. Management Tools > DNS

  3. Right click forward query area > New Area and enter the area name. Click finish

  4. Right click on the region name to create a new host and fill in the name and IP address

  5. Change the local DNS server to the IP address of the virtual machine

  6. CMD – > NSLOOKUP, enter the domain name to verify

Reverse solution:

1. Right click reverse lookup to create a new area and fill in the IP segment until it is finished

2. In the new area, right circle, new pointer, browse and select the host configured in the positive direction, and finish

3. CMD > NSLOOKUP > enter IP address to verify

4、Mail server:

  1. Control Panel > Add or remove components

  2. Select email service > POP3 to install

  3. Management Tools > POP3 service

  4. Right click, new domain > Enter domain name. And right-click on the domain name, new mailbox, create two email addresses

  5. Start > all programs > Outlook Express; Tools > account > fill in the correct user name and email address, and note that the email sending and receiving server is the local IP address

  6. Send email for verification

5. Build the test environment of JDK

  1. Install JDK and configure environment variables




  1. Install Tomcat. Start Tomcat

  2. Install the database

(1) Install SQL

(2) Install patches

(3) Restore database (create table and initialize data for power supply company project)

  1. Publish power supply project (publish path, configuration file)

  2. Validation release

Software architecture: C / s, B / S

Project environment:

JDK + Tomcat (web application server) + database 8080

PHP + Apache (web application server) + database 80