At the beginning of 2019, Tencent (hereinafter referred to as CNKI) and CNKI (hereinafter referred to as CNKI) jointly launched the blockchain application platform. In April 2019, “Zhixin chain” and “Penguin” of Tencent content China and Taiwan joined hands to provide digital copyright protection for original authors. So far, more than 10 million original articles have been protected on “Zhixin chain”.
Since the launch of “Zhixin chain” more than a year ago, “Zhixin chain”, supported by Tencent cloud blockchain as the underlying technology, has protected more than 10 million original works, cooperated with penguin’s “one key rights protection” system to initiate rights protection and successfully removed 8 million infringing works from shelves, with an average of more than 30000 rights protection per day, safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of the majority of original content creators.
After one year’s exploration and practice, the Zhixin chain team has some experience. This article will talk about how we use the new technology of blockchain to try to solve the old problem of copyright protection from four aspects
- What is blockchain and Zhixin chain?
- Why: why use blockchain to solve the problem of copyright protection?
- How: how can we use blockchain to solve the blockchain version problem?
- Thinking: what else can blockchain do for the copyright industry in the future?
What is blockchain and Zhixin chain?
1. What is blockchain?
We can simply understand the blockchain as a tamper resistant data ledger maintained by multiple parties. The tamper resistant capability of the blockchain provides important “certainty”. In the Internet environment, only the authority can add, delete, modify and query an existing data element, among which the deletion and modification will bring a lot of uncertainty to a data element.
For example, in the judicial settlement of online disputes, the electronic evidence used to judge the facts is easy to tamper, but it is difficult to determine whether it has been tampered, which brings challenges for judges to hear such online disputes. Copyright infringement dispute is an important part of online disputes.
2. What is Zhixin chain?
Tencent, together with China network security and Beiming software, jointly launched the Zhixin chain. The three parties are committed to building the Zhixin chain into an infrastructure in the field of intelligent justice. Firstly, it will be applied to the key electronic data / electronic evidence storage in Online Dispute prone scenarios, such as online copyright infringement, online financial lending disputes and so on.
“Zhixin chain” strategic cooperation signing ceremony
The business system required by the certificate can be connected through the SDK provided by the “Zhixin chain”, which can be solidified on the chain in real time when the dispute prone electronic data is generated. Later, the evidence can be submitted online in the litigation. At the same time, by comparing the current evidence with the evidence stored at the time of production, it can be proved whether the evidence has been tampered with. If the comparison is correct, it can be proved that the current evidence is original, and the authenticity can be deduced to a certain extent. The basic principle of blockchain certificate storage is shown in the figure below.
At present, many kinds of public trust organizations, such as courts, copyright bureaus and notarization offices, have joined the “Zhixin chain” alliance as nodes. As shown in the figure below, many organizations participate together to ensure that the data on the chain can not be tampered with. At the same time, they also provide digital functional capabilities on the Zhixin chain platform, such as online copyright authentication and online notarization, so as to solve the problem of trustworthiness based on electronic data.
“Zhixin chain” solves the problem of electronic evidence’s trustworthiness. According to the revised “Several Provisions on evidence in civil litigation” (implemented from May 1, 2020), the electronic evidence fixed by blockchain technology will have much higher advantages than the general electronic evidence in terms of authenticity and evidence effectiveness. Since 2018, Tencent has taken the lead in participating in the “China Mobile micro court” project, covering more than 3500 courts in China. At present, “Zhixin chain” is actively promoting the docking work with “China Mobile micro court”. After the docking, it can realize the real-time deposit of “Zhixin chain”. When disputes occur, it can be submitted to local courts through “China Mobile micro court”, and the litigation cost will be greatly reduced. In copyright infringement disputes, it has a strong legal weapon to protect the rights and interests of the original.
Why: why use blockchain for copyright protection?
1. The original author has been infringed repeatedly
At present, the situation of piracy and plagiarism in the digital content industry is serious. Taking Tencent as an example, “Penguin” has signed a large number of original authors, producing about 300000 articles every day, of which about 150000 articles are infringed. Some of them have been plagiarized by washing manuscripts, and some of them have been published on the friendly business platform. The overall infringement rate is more than 50%, which brings huge losses to the original content creators.
Piracy and plagiarism is a clear illegal act. If we help the judicial / law enforcement departments to realize that infringement must be punished and violations must be investigated, we can greatly crack down on the infringers. The cost of infringement is greater than the benefit of infringement, which makes the infringement unsustainable.
2. The traditional rights protection cycle is long and it is difficult to obtain evidence
It is understood that penguin, with such a high rate of infringement, has not initiated a lawsuit against any infringer by legal means. After analysis, it is found that there are two major pain points in going through judicial proceedings
① Conventional offline judicial litigation process is long, time-consuming and high cost.
② Online infringement disputes, electronic evidence is easy to tamper, difficult to identify, the court acceptance rate is not high, there is a risk of losing.
How to reduce the cost of litigation and solve the problem of electronic evidence identification? The team of Zhixin chain put forward the countermeasures
① “Micro court” can realize online litigation, break through the physical space limit, save time and effort.
② Zhixin chain solves the problem that electronic data / evidence is easy to be tampered by blockchain technology. Evidence generation is to store evidence on the chain in real time, and ensure the evidentiary force of evidence at the source of data generation.
How: how to use blockchain to solve the copyright problem?
After clarifying the digital judicial litigation means to crack down on infringers, “Zhixin chain” team and Tencent legal team quickly developed a plan, using “Zhixin chain” to solidify the following key steps, so as to form a complete and reliable evidence chain in the litigation link.
① Confirm the ownership evidence (prove that this article belongs to me, not TA)
② Solidify the evidence of infringement
The whole process of the scheme is shown in the figure below
The first step is to determine the evidence of ownershipThrough the tamper proof principle of blockchain, we made API (application interface) docking with the article publishing system when penguin’s original articles were published, so as to achieve article publishing and automatic on the chain. After on the chain, we solidified four W, when (publishing time), who (author), what (published content), where (which domain name). There are also relevant credibility nodes on the chain, such as the Ministry of industry and information technology, the capital copyright protection center, the court and other institutions can witness the unique electronic characteristic value (hash value) of the work information.
After the ownership information is fixed, the author can choose whether to carry out copyright authentication, copyright registration and other processes on the chain to further prove the ownership of the article.
Example of electronic data certificate
The second step is to solidify the evidence of infringementThe infringement platform on the Internet is scanned and located by the infringement monitoring system, and the infringement webpage is obtained by the “Zhixin chain” online forensics tool, and the evidence is solidified on the chain. It also solidifies the four evidence elements of who, where, when and what.
The third step is deterrence and rights protection：In copyright litigation, the earliest credible original proof and credible evidence of infringement can basically win. The first step is to publish the evidence of ownership, and the second step is to solidify the evidence of infringement. At this time, the evidence chain has been very clear, “Penguin” can automatically send the relevant information to the infringer, order it to take off the shelves to copy articles, or go to court, waiting for the loss of compensation.
The fourth step is online litigationIf the other party is still stubborn and refuses to take the infringing content off the shelves, the online litigation platform “micro court” can submit the relevant electronic evidence for online litigation.
Traditional online and offline rights protection requires a lot of time to prepare relevant materials, notarize or identify relevant evidence, go to court and so on. The process is long, time-consuming and costly, which blocks the way of many original authors’ rights protection. Under the overall solution of “Zhixin chain”, the whole process can be online, which greatly reduces the time cost and money cost of litigation, and enables us to have the ability of low-cost and high-efficiency rights protection.
To sum up, the “Zhixin chain” overall solution provides creators with easy-to-use, low-cost rights confirmation ability, evidence collection ability and online litigation ability. It reduces the threshold of attacking infringers, so that every creator and creative platform can easily use digital legal weapons to protect their knowledge achievements. Only when we realize that the infringement must be investigated and the piracy must be punished, can we fundamentally solve the problem of infringement and piracy, fully protect the original content, and help the digital content industry to thrive.
So far, “Zhixin chain” has completed docking with penguin, isux original library, Tencent games and other platforms, with more than 100000 certificates per day.
What else can blockchain do for the copyright industry in the future?
The Internet is great, and the great basic logic lies in its realization of information transmission. The basic cost tends to zero, which has created our prosperous internet life, online social networking, digital content, life services and so on. However, the Internet lacks “certainty” and the basic means of transmitting “value” or assets, which is of great significance to our life and production in many scenarios After further studying and using the blockchain, we gradually realize that the value transmission cost of the blockchain tends to zero, which will bring great changes to the existing information internet.
After contacting the blockchain + copyright business, we have been thinking about a question: what are the attributes of digital content? An article or a design work can really be defined as information from the perspective of readers and audiences. Information is easy to copy and tamper on the Internet, which brings trouble to content creators. The content produced at cost is reprinted and plagiarized, and can not fully get its due benefits.
Gradually, we have some ideas about whether we can abstract digital content into assets,Digital content is information for the audience, should be “value” for the creator, and should not be copied or illegally tampered with。 Assets can be authorized for use and can bring benefits to the asset holders. Assets can be traded. After an asset is traded, the seller loses the purchase and gains. The assets are unique and can not be used for double payment.
We envisage a scenario in which a huge value network has been established based on the blockchain, with the participation of government authorities, regulators, enterprises and individuals.Content creators can link their worksAfter the government authority node certification, it can be on the chainIssued an irreplaceable tokenThe token is the proof of the assets of this article. Token can be freely circulated and traded on the chain,Token can be sold, split, authorized or mortgaged。
Correspondingly, creators can freely choose which channel platform to put content on, and sign a smart contract with the platform after putting content on. The revenue generated by the article will be automatically sorted according to the proportion of the smart contract (the release of central bank decp will bring possibility to this scene).
Creators can also authorize others to adapt their own works on this value network platform. The relevant agreements can also form a smart contract. The adapted works can also be freely put in, and the income obtained will be automatically divided according to the agreed proportion of the contract.
Creators can sell their works for cash, or mortgage them after valuation on the financial platform in order to continue to create. Even a work token can be split. For example, if ordinary people can’t buy a complete high-value art work, they can choose to buy one thousandth or ten thousandth of the token works to participate in the investment of art works.
Works of art can also become digital assets
In the value network of blockchain, works become assets instead of information that can be copied and tampered with indefinitely. Digital works are capitalized in the value network and have the attributes of certainty, liquidity and other assets. All works assets have a definite obligee, and all works authorization relations are recorded by a certain and tamperable smart contract. All infringement acts will be quickly located and punished.
As a value transmission tool, blockchain constructs a value network connecting all people, which will bring tremendous changes to the current society. The degree of such changes can even be equivalent to the changes brought to our life and production after the emergence of the Internet.
Finally, add a small advertisement. If a small partner (blockchain product manager, blockchain R & D Engineer, blockchain architect) wants to join Tencent, join Tencent cloud blockchain, and change the world with us, welcome your resume__ [email protected]tencent.com__ 。
Concerned about the official account of the cloud plus community, and reply to the Tencent cloud block chain, we can get the “2019 Tencent chain chain white paper”.