Understanding and node operation of concordium blockchain


How can blockchain be enabled?

A blockchain is essentially a public ledger, which records all transaction information on the blockchain based on computer computing programs. Blockchain enabling economy mainly reduces costs in five aspects:

1. Reduce the cost of credit establishment. That is to establish a “trust” ecosystem to meet the occurrence and development of various activities under the environment of asymmetric and uncertain information.

2. Reduce the cost of credit transmission. The decentralization of blockchain is of great significance for removing intermediaries, reducing credit transmission costs and reducing the waste of social resources.

3. Reduce the cost of regulatory audit. The cost of information disclosure, audit and supervision in the traditional trading market is high. The operation of blockchain and artificial intelligence can be completed quickly, which greatly improves the production efficiency.

4. Reduce the cost of agreement Unicom. Internet companies have different API interfaces, and Unicom takes time. The blockchain can establish a data bus and connect with a unified interface to effectively reduce the cost of Unicom.

5. Reduce organization and management costs. The alliance chain operates the blockchain to solve organizational and management problems, vote and jointly record through the blockchain, connect the data island, and form a more flat governance and management structure.

At present, blockchain is mainly divided into two formations: public chain and alliance chain (if private chain is not considered). Among them, well-known public chains such as bitcoin and Ethereum lead the development of the whole blockchain, while the market utility of the alliance chain is not clear at present.

Therefore, in this paper, we mainly focus on the common chain.

Application limitations of strong anonymity

At present, however, most public chains in the market are designed with pure decentralization as the core idea, such as bitcoin, Ethereum, Boca and so on. In this type of public chain world, our behavior is all transformed into the behavior of an account address, and the account address is not linked to a real person, so no one can deduce the real identity of the operator behind the account address.

This purely idealistic public chain naturally protects the anonymity (Privacy) of users. In businesses requiring strong anonymity, these public chains can provide good services.

However, the business scenario of strong anonymity actually accounts for a very small proportion in the lives of ordinary people. Ordinary people’s daily necessities of life (such as consumption behavior) occupy most of the market economy. Therefore, the large-scale application of a public chain must strive to penetrate into all aspects of people’s life. It is worth noting that ordinary people’s daily necessities of life (such as consumption behavior) are not strong anonymous scenes.

In the world of ordinary people, 99.99% of business dealings are based on trust in authority. For example, e-commerce and online shopping are not commercial acts of dealing with silver goods. The reason why people dare to pay first (without receiving goods) or why sellers dare to ship first (without receiving payment) is because of their trust in the platform and the platform’s audit of stores (business license, etc.), and the root of these trust is that the platform (business license, etc.) is also certified by the state, In the final analysis, it is still an authority.

It can be seen that the trust of ordinary people is based on the basic form of “seeing and touching”. Obviously, strong anonymity is not a strong demand for ordinary people.

However, it is worth noting that although strong anonymity is not a strong demand for people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation, strong privacy is a strong demand for people. Don’t confuse “strong privacy” with “strong anonymity”. The latter is only one of the characteristics of the former. People need strong diet, not necessarily strong anonymity.

The market needs regulation

Blockchain naturally carries the gene of “decentralization”. Many idealists trust blockchain to “disintermediate” and “delegating authority”. They pursue pure free market. However, historical facts tell us that the pure free market is never rational. The market without authority is more harmful to the people. The market needs the intervention and guidance of Justice Authority. The people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation market needs to be firmly controlled by justice and authority, that is, the market cannot be separated from the supervision of authoritative institutions.

The supervision of the market by the authority needs to implement the reward and punishment policies to the specific participant entities (individuals or enterprises) of the market. To achieve this goal, we must locate the specific responsible person. The specific responsible person needs to be given a unique ID (ID card) by the market, just as our individual has an ID card and the enterprise needs a license.

The derivation context is clear: the blockchain enabled market, the blockchain based market needs supervision, the supervision needs to locate specific participants, and the implementation of positioning needs the participant ID.

Real time transaction & low cost

There is no doubt that blockchain enabling economy is a general trend. In the future, blockchain will certainly penetrate people’s daily necessities. At present, people mainly use legal currency as the general equivalent in their daily necessities. As a general equivalent, one of the most important characteristics of legal currency is value stability. The value stability of legal currency is one of the important foundations to protect people’s wealth and maintain market stability. The large fluctuation of the value of legal currency in a short time will seriously affect prices and cause social unrest.

The consensus of blockchain requires token economic incentives, and tokens are used as transaction fuel (such as miners’ fees). From the historical price of bitcoin and Ethereum tokens, we can see huge volatility. Secondly, its network is extremely slow and congested. Therefore, based on the market above bitcoin Ethereum, its token can not be used as the general equivalent of people’s basic necessities of life. The blockchain based market at the level of basic necessities of life must support real-time transactions and stable tokens.

Based on the above description, we can find that the public chain that purely pursues strong anonymity and purely de authoritative supervision is very difficult to integrate into people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation and realize large-scale application. At present, famous public chains such as bitcoin Ethereum are all based on this pure vision. At present, bitcoin Ethereum is rarely used in people’s life. Its strong anonymity, no supervision and high cost make it more used in gray and black industries (dark network, etc.).

        However, there is no doubt that blockchain enabling economy is a general trend. So what kind of blockchain can be really quickly applied to the people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation market?

With this problem in mind, we can focus on concordium blockchain project.

What is concordium?

Concordim is a privacy centered public unauthorized blockchain specially built for enterprises.

Concordium platform is maintained by concordium foundation, a non-profit entity established in Switzerland. It is developed and implemented by concordium Ag (a software company in Switzerland). Its R & D team is composed of the best cryptologists, computer scientists and researchers.

Concordium’s vision is to become a global regulatory compliance blockchain. In essence, it is a transparent and unified general-purpose computer and establishes an identity ID at the protocol layer, providing secure and reasonably priced services for trade, IOT data sharing, storage and other scenarios. At the same time, it also solves the explosive weakness of the classic blockchain and the common cryptocurrency problems of incompatible regulations on the classic blockchain. Concordium ensures that network participants receive corresponding rewards through GTU (full name: global transaction unit) token. GTU can be used to pay for the execution of smart contracts, user transactions and as value storage.

Official website: https://concordium.com/ , interested readers can have an in-depth understanding.


Novel points of concordium

Privacy and user authentication && design compliance

Concordium has a creative identity layer that balances anonymity and accountability with local compliance. All users participating in activities on the chain must apply for a unique identity ID, but the identity ID is unrecognizable on the chain. However, if the government agency makes an effective request through trusted channels, its identity can be changed and disclosed.

Fixed transaction costs

Concordium allows its users to obtain information about transaction costs in advance. It adopts an innovative price stabilization technology to ensure that transaction costs are fixed, although GTU in the encryption market may fluctuate.

Fast transaction processing and high throughput on a global scale

Building a secure blockchain on concordium platform is simple and cheap. It provides a method for industries, countries or people to develop personal blockchain through the unique fragmentation mechanism in the platform. Secondly, concordium has developed a secure termination layer, which runs on the Zhongben style blockchain, so that the transaction speed is satisfactory. This strategy is developing very fast and can meet the needs of any investment application around the world.

In addition, concordium has developed two programming technologies midlang and retlang to make smart contracts easier to formulate and more reliable to transmit. Concordium also has a novel interoperability design that enables the platform to send verified information to other chains and entities without the recipient operating the platform.

From the above description of concordium, it can be preliminarily judged that concordium does have the great potential to penetrate into the people’s economy of clothing, food, housing and transportation first than bitcoin, Ethereum and other public chains.

Run concordium node

In this guide, you will learn how to run nodes participating in the concordium network on your computer. This means that you will receive blocks and transactions from other nodes and propagate information about blocks and transactions to other nodes in the concordium network. Following this guide, you will be able to

1. Run a concordium node

2. Observe it on the network dashboard

3. Query the status of concordium blockchain directly from your machine.

You do not need an account to run the node.

Before you start

Before running the concordium node, you need to

1. Install and run docker.

On Linux, docker is allowed to run as a non root user.

    2. Download and unzip: Ref:concordium-node-and-client-downloadSoftware.

Upgrade from an earlier version of open testnet

To upgrade the current concordium software for open testnet 4:

    1. Please follow the above steps to: Ref:download<downloads>Download the latest concordium software.

2. Run the concordium node reset data executable from the extracted archive.

2.1 for Mac users: when opening the tool for the first time, right-click the concordium node reset data file and select open. A message will appear indicating that the software comes from an unidentified developer. Select open again.

2.2 for Windows users: when opening the tool for the first time, double-click the concordium node reset data file. A message will appear indicating that the software comes from an unidentified developer. Select more information → still run.

The tool will ask:

Do you still want to delete the saved key?

The account created for the previous version is no longer valid on open testnet 3, so if you have a previous version account stored, we recommend entering y, which will delete all account keys.

Run node

To start running the client that will join open testnet, follow the steps below:

1. Open the concordium node executable from the extracted archive.

2. For Mac users: the first time you open the tool, right-click the concordium node binary and select open. A message will appear indicating that the software comes from an unidentified developer. Select open again.

3. For Windows users: when opening the tool for the first time, double-click the concordium node binary file. A message will appear indicating that the software comes from an unidentified developer. Select more information → still run.

When restarting a node, consider using the — no block state import option. This will only download updates (new blocks) to the concordium blockchain that occur when the node is inactive, which may speed up the startup process.

Enter the name of the node. This name is displayed in the common dashboard.

If the tool is already started, you will be asked if you want to delete the local node database before starting. Press y to delete and then recreate the concordium blockchain status information saved on the computer. Note that deleting the local node database means that it will take more time for your node to catch up with the current concordium network.

The tool will now download the concordium client image and load it into docker. The client starts and starts outputting logging information about node operations.

See your node on the dashboard

After running concordium node, you can

1. View your nodes on the network dashboard

    2. :ref:query<testnet-query-node>Information about blocks, transactions and accounts is available in

Network dashboard

It takes some time for the client (node) to catch up with the status of concordium blockchain (i.e. synchronize to the latest block height). Because this process will download information about all blocks in the chain.

In addition, you can find out how long it will take for your node to catch up with the chain on the network dashboard. You can compare the length (number of received node blocks) of your local node with the chain length (number of blocks in the longest chain in the network) displayed at the top of the dashboard.

Enable inbound connections

If you run a node behind a firewall or behind a home router, you may only be able to connect to other nodes, but other nodes will not be able to start a connection to that node. However, in this way, your node can fully participate in the concordium network and send transactions. If it is configured as: Ref:if so configured<become-a-baker-zh>If necessary, you can also bake and finalize transactions.

However, by enabling inbound connections, you can also make nodes better network participants. By default, concordium node listens for 8888 inbound connections on the port. Depending on your network and platform configuration, you may need to forward the external port to the 8888 router, open it in the firewall, or use both. The specific operation depends on your configuration.

configure port

The node listens on four ports, which can be configured by providing appropriate command line parameters when starting the node. The ports used by the node are as follows:

8888, port for point-to-point network, you can use — listen node port

8082. For the port used by the middleware, you can use — listen middleware port

10000, grpc port. You can use — listen grpc port

When changing the port mapping above the docker container, you must stop (: Ref:stop-a-node-zh), restart after reset. If you want to reset the container, execute concordium node reset data or docker RM concordium client in the terminal.

We strongly recommend that your firewall should be configured to allow only public connections on port 8888 (the network port of the peer-to-peer network), because people who have access to other ports may be able to control (attack) your node or the account you save on that node.

Stop node

To stop the node, press Ctrl + C, and wait until the node is closed.

If you accidentally close a window without explicitly closing the client, it will continue to run in the background in docker. In this case, execute the concordium node stop binary on the terminal in a manner similar to concordium node.