Ubuntu 20.04 dual system installation complete tutorial

Time:2021-10-25

1. View PC information

1.1 viewing BIOS mode

Press the “Win + R” shortcut key to enter “run”, enter “msinfo32”, and the following interface will appear to view the BIOS mode:

UEFI mode:

 

 

 

Traditional MBR mode:

 

 

 

BIOS mode includes traditional MBR mode and new UEFI mode, which will have a direct impact on the method of installing dual system. At present, most computers belong to the new UEFI mode, but some old machines still belong to the traditional MBR mode. This tutorial only introduces the dual system installation method under the new UEFI mode. If your computer belongs to the traditional MBR mode, it is strongly recommended that you reinstall the windows system to update the BIOS mode to UEFI.

1.2 find out the number of hard disks of the computer

Computers are single and double hard disks. I hope you know it when you buy computers. This is one of the selling points. If you don’t know this, please don’t abandon yourself and continue to look down.

Right click “this computer”, click “management”, and click “disk management”:

 

 

 

I believe you have understood the information of your computer. Please note that there is a part to distinguish between “single hard disk” and “dual hard disk” operation.

2. Making system disk

The following tools need to be prepared:

1, Ubuntu system image

2Recording software: “soft disk link”, you will be prompted to register and choose to continue to try; Rufus。

3A USB flash disk larger than 2G

 

 

2.1 making a startup disk through floppy disk

1. Install and open the floppy disk, plug in the USB flash disk, and back up your USB flash disk, because it needs to be formatted later;

2. Enter floppy disk link, select file, browse to the directory where your Ubuntu image is located, select the Ubuntu image file, and double-click to open it, as shown in the figure:

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Select “start” and “write hard disk image” in the menu bar of the floppy disk interface, as shown in the figure:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Next, it is important to pay attention to the order:

1) Check whether your hard disk drive corresponds to your USB flash disk (must be), which is generally the default;

2) See if the image file corresponds to your Ubuntu image;

3) If there are no errors above, select format, and then your USB flash disk will be formatted;

4) After the USB flash disk is formatted, select write, and then wait slowly until the writing is completed;

5) Step 2 is complete.

 

 

2.2 Rufus makes startup U disk

Insert the USB flash disk, run rufus-3.10.exe, select as follows, then click start, and wait for completion

 

 

 

byUbuntuInstall empty partition

 

 

3. Create a blank partition under Windows

Note: this step is to allocate space for Ubuntu system. There is a difference between single hard disk and dual hard disk.

1. Right click “this computer”, click “management”, and click “disk management”:

 

 

 

 

2. Allocate space for Ubuntu

(1) If it is a single hard disk, select the last disk (for example, the last of the two CD disks is disk D, the last of the CDE disk is disk e, the last of the cdef disk is disk F, and so on). Right click the disk and select the compressed volume as follows. Enter the amount of compressed space in M. if the space is sufficient, it is recommended to divide 80g or 100g, and 60g (1g = 1024m) if the space is insufficient :

 

 

 

If the capacity of your last disk is too small to separate 60g, it needs to be evenly distributed from other disks. You need to use the diskgenius tool. The specific operations are not introduced here. I hope you can solve them yourself.

(2) If it is a dual hard disk, you need to first allocate a 200m blank partition on Disk C (which is the first hard disk of the computer, and some computer systems are installed on the second hard disk) to install the startup item of Ubuntu, and then select the last disk on another hard disk (for example, the last of the two CD disks is disk D, the last of the CDE disks is disk e, the last of the cdef disks is disk F, and so on). Right click on the disk and select the compressed volume as follows. Enter the compressed space in M. if the space is sufficient, it is recommended to divide 80g or 100g. If the space is insufficient, it can also divide 60g (1g = 1024m):

 

 

 

Two questions are explained here

(1) Why there are differences between single and dual hard disk partitions: you can see that the difference between partitions is that 200m is separated from drive C to install startup items. When the computer starts up, it will automatically search the startup item on the hard disk where Disk C is located to start the system. Of course, we hope that the installed Ubuntu startup item can also be searched, so we need to install the startup item here. In this way, windows and Ubuntu startup items will be searched when starting up. We can manually select which system to enter. Of course, the “boot item needs to be installed on the hard disk where Disk C is located” here is not absolute. It is just to automatically search the boot item when starting up, and it can also be installed on other hard disks. It is just that you need to enter the boot manager to find the Ubuntu boot item every time you start up. It is more troublesome, so it is recommended to partition according to my method.

(2) Why choose the last disk to compress the volume: the file storage formats of windows and Ubuntu are different. Our partition operation only divides a part of the disk to Ubuntu. In fact, the two systems still share a disk. In order to prevent the two systems from affecting each other due to different storage formats, By compressing from the last disk, we divided the Ubuntu partition into the last section of the disk, that is, the first part of a disk is the Windows partition and the last part is the Ubuntu partition.

My computer has dual hard disks. Here are my partition results:

 

 

 

 

Turn off win10 quick start

Menu – > Settings – > System – > power and sleep – > other power settings – > select the function of the power button – > uncheck to enable quick start

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Install the system with the prepared system disk

notes: because the shortcut keys for starting BIOS and boot manager of computers of various manufacturers are different, please Baidu how to enter BIOS and boot manager.

1. Plug in the system disk, restart the computer, boot into the BIOS, turn off secure boot on the Security page (different computers may have secure boot in different locations), and then go to the boot page. If there is a fast boot item (some Lenovo computers have it), turn it off without ignoring it; Then save the changes, select USB startup in the startup item at the bottom of the boot page, and press enter. If you successfully enter the installation page, continue; If you cannot enter by clicking the USB startup item, save and exit, and the computer will restart. Press the corresponding key to enter the boot manager according to your computer, find the USB startup item, and enter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Then enter this interface, select Install Ubuntu, and press enter to confirm

 

 

 

3. There may not be a previous interface, but there must be some interfaces below. Different images will be different, but the meaning is the same. Pull down the language bar and there will be Chinese

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Click “install Ubuntu” and the following or similar interface will appear. Only select “install third-party software for graphics or wireless hardware, MP3 and other media”. Do not select the first one. It is very slow to download updates while installing. Click “continue”

 

 

 

 

 

5. When the following or similar interfaces appear, be sure to select “other options” because manual zoning is required

 

 

 

6. The partition interface is as follows:

 

 

 

Here, you can see the free partitions that have been divided in step 3. The above figure shows the case of a single hard disk. There is only one free partition, and the size is given when you partition; If you have dual hard disks, you can also see another free partition with a size of about 200m, soThe following partition operations are a little different between single and dual hard disks

Here, we carry outManual partition, assuming that the free partition you set aside is 80g, click the free drive letter and click “+” to partition, as follows:

1) EFI: If yesSingle hard disk, add on the only free partition with a size of 200m, logical partition and space start position for EFI; If it isDual hard disk, find the 200m free partition divided in advance, add the logical partition and the space starting position for EFI. This partition is essential for installing Ubuntu startup items. The following steps are the same for single and dual hard disks, which are added to the 80g free partition

2) Swap: Chinese is “swap space”, which acts as the virtual memory of Ubuntu. The general size is about twice the physical memory of the computer. It can be divided into 8g, logical partition and space starting position, which are used for “swap” or “swap space”

3) /: This is the root directory of Ubuntu, which is used to install the system and software. It is equivalent to the C disk of windows. We divide it into 20g, the main partition, the space starting position, and the “ext4 log file system”. The mounting point is “/ (it can be larger according to your disk space adjustment. After all, Ubuntu software is installed in the root directory by default)

4) / home: it is equivalent to other windows disks. The rest is allocated to it. It is a logical partition. The space starting position is used for “ext4 log file system”, and the mounting point is “/ home”

Well, after partitioning, you can partition according to the above description without any problem. At least I always do this (strongly recommended). Of course, you can also divide it in more detail. The specific division can be Baidu.

The following step is important: at the bottom of the partition interface, select:Device for installing startup itemsWe just created a 200m EFI partition. Now look at the number in front of this partition, such as / dev / sda1. Different machines will have different numbers. Select this EFI partition number from the drop-down list(It must be noted here that the Windows startup item is also an EFI file, which is about 500m in size, while the EFI size of the Ubuntu we created is 200m. Be sure to select the right one), and then click “install now”

(Baidu’s below is not allowed)!

 

 

 

 

7. Setting the region is not important. You can set it according to your needs, or you can continue directly without affecting it

 

 

 

 

8. The keyboard layout is English by default, and it is recommended not to change it (Chinese by default)

 

 

 

9. Set the user here and input it yourself. For example, English letters should be as simple as possible, and the password should be as simple as possible

 

 

 

 

10. Start the system installation and wait patiently for the installation to be completed

 

 

 

 

11. After all is completed, you will be reminded to restart. Pull out the USB flash drive and click “restart now”. If it is stuck, it will be forced to shut down and restart

 

 

 

12. After restarting, you will see the following interface: the first one is Ubuntu startup, the second one is Ubuntu advanced settings, the third one is Windows startup, and the fourth one doesn’t matter. By default, the first one is selected, and enter the Ubuntu system

 

 

 

 

 

5. Ubuntu grub boot interface beautification

Not surprisingly, after installing the dual systems of Ubuntu and windows, it should be started by the grub boot of Ubuntu, that is, when starting up, we should choose to enter the ugly page with white characters on a black background of that system. The purpose of this article is to set and beautify the grub boot.

5.1 optimization settings

The setting file of grub boot is / etc / default / grub. Modifying it can get the desired results.

On the command line, type: if you will use VIM: sudo VIM / etc / default / grub

Or if you can’t use VIM: sudo GEDIT / etc / default / grub

Then we can edit the settings file

 

 

 

 

Generally, we need to change grub_ Default (default startup item: this number is the sequential number of several startup items you see when you start up. Remember! The number of programmer world always starts from 0, which means that the first item is 0, the second item is 1, and so on), grub_ TIMEOUT_ Style (whether to display countdown, hidden attribute indicates that countdown will not be displayed), grub_ Timeout (wait time in seconds), grub_ Gfxmode (display pixel of the screen, you can ignore this item)

Change according to your own needs. If you need to change many other configurations, you can query the specific meaning and attribute value of each item.

Note that if the attribute statement you change has a # symbol in front of it, you must remove it before it will work.

Remember to save and leave after completion, and then enter sudo update grub on the command line to update the settings just now. Overall, it looks like this:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.2 change windows boot to Ubuntu boot

Note: you can only boot with Ubuntu grub under UEFI

 

 

 

 

 

List Ubuntu in the first place, and select the EFI partition in the disk / partition option

 

 

 

 

5.3 page beautification

The boot page with white characters on a black background is still extremely ugly, but fortunately, we can beautify it. If you are a great God who can modify the source code or add the style by yourself, I don’t need to say more, but if you want to save trouble or can’t write the page style by yourself, you can download a page style of your favorite style here and use it for yourself. Click grub themes on the left

 

 

 

 

Here you can see a variety of themes. Choose the one you like. I take this “poly lignt” as an example, select it and download it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If you really can’t open this page, you can download this file shared by my baidu cloud:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1HEhEGK_qK9-0o826CePqrQExtraction code: x1hl

After downloading, you get a compressed package and unzip it

 

 

 

 

Create a folder: sudo MKDIR / boot / grub / themes/

 

 

 

 

Copy the entire extracted folder to the folder just created: sudo CP – R poly light master / boot / grub / themes/

 

 

 

 

Next, edit the file: / etc / grub.d/00_ Header, that is, enter the command: sudo GEDIT / etc / grub.d/00_ header

If you find that you can’t save the file after changing the content, it means that you don’t have enough permission. You can enter root permission to edit it again

 

 

 

 

In the open 00_ In the header file, add the following two lines:

GRUB_THEME=”/boot/grub/themes/poly-light-master/theme.txt”

GRUB_GFXMODE=”1920×1080”

1

2

The first sentence is changed according to the theme you downloaded into the theme.txt file in the theme package you just copied to the themes folder. The second sentence is the resolution of your screen.

 

 

 

 

Remember to update grub after saving: sudo update grub

 

 

 

 

Well, restart your computer again!

be accomplished!

 

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