Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

Time:2022-8-5

Original link:http://tecdat.cn/?p=23583

Author: Herbert Hu

Project Challenge

Muji refers to "good products without a name". It was born in Japan in 1980 and mainly promotes various high-quality products such as clothing, daily groceries, and food. In 2005, Muji entered the Chinese market. The products focus on the concepts of simplicity, simplicity, environmental protection and people-oriented, and are deeply loved by consumers. However, compared with Wal-Mart, McDonald's, Starbucks and other chain companies, the academic research results on Muji are relatively few, which is not in line with its high popularity in China. In contrast, MUJI's design concept, brand thinking, and business strategy have attracted more attention, while its spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors have not received enough attention. Taking Shanghai Muji as an example, this paper uses a combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative research to analyze the macro- and micro-spatial distribution characteristics, location analysis and location strategy of Muji, and discusses the impact of Muji on the city. significance.

solution

1. Research overview

1. Research background

With the continuous development of my country's economy, people's living standards continue to improve, income continues to grow, and residents' purchasing power also continues to increase. At the same time, in the face of various types of products that are rich, diverse and rapidly updated, consumers' consumption patterns are also changing, their consumption demands are constantly improving, and their consumption levels are also gradually improving. People not only pursue high-quality, inexpensive and cost-effective products, but more and more people have begun to pay attention to improving their quality of life, hoping that the things they buy can truly bring them enjoyment.

Muji refers to "good products without a name". It was born in Japan in 1980 and mainly promotes various high-quality products such as clothing, daily groceries, and food. In 2005, Muji entered the Chinese market. The products focus on the concepts of simplicity, simplicity, environmental protection, and people-oriented. They are deeply loved by consumers, especially young people and middle-class groups. At present, Muji has more than 200 stores in China, and it is still expanding at a rate of 30 new stores every year.

2. Research status

The research on location selection has a long history. The earliest is the location theory of human space activities. With the rapid development of the commodity economy and the continuous abundance of commodity materials, when people can timely, accurately and dynamically obtain information on various factors related to commercial service facilities , and can carry out scientific analysis on these influencing factors, people have higher and higher requirements for the accuracy and feasibility of commercial service facility location selection. The success of the location selection of service facilities depends largely on whether there are mature theories and methods for theoretical support.

However, compared with Wal-Mart, McDonald's, Starbucks and other chain institutions, there are relatively few academic research results on Muji, which is not in line with its high popularity in China. In contrast, MUJI's design concept, brand thinking, and business strategy have attracted more attention, while its spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors have not received enough attention.

3. Theoretical basis

(1) statisticstheory

Statistics is a comprehensive science that infers the nature of the object under test and even predicts the future of the object by means of searching, sorting, analyzing, and describing data. Statistics uses a lot of expertise in mathematics and other disciplines. It is widely used in various disciplines, from the physical and social sciences to the humanities, and is even used in business and government intelligence decisions. As the process of digitization continues to accelerate, people increasingly hope to summarize some empirical laws from a large amount of data to provide some basis for subsequent decision-making.

(2) GIS theory

GIS theory is the theory of applying geographic information system for site selection. It has a wide range of application prospects, and this paper mainly uses this method to solve the problem of location selection. GIS uses computer technology to analyze and interpret the geographical environment, classify, summarize and store the elements obtained in this process, and establish a comprehensive and meticulous database management system, which not only facilitates the acquisition of ground object information in future research work The speed also lays a solid infrastructure for the visualization of the conclusions and outputs. Common methods for decision-making of facility location selection. In reality, the problem of facility location selection is often very complex, and it is usually necessary to use a computer to establish a corresponding mathematical model to solve.

(3) Locationtheory

Location theory is a theory that studies the selection of human activities in space and the optimization of space organization. Originating from the classical economy, it is divided into micro and macro levels. Whether it is the distribution and location of specific production departments or facilities, or the comprehensive layout plan of a region or even the country as a whole, location theory can be used for analysis. Location theory, as a system, mainly includes Du Neng's agricultural location theory, Weber's industrial location theory, and Liao Shi's market location theory. To sum up, the connotation of location theory can be summarized as the spatial selection of economic behavior and the organic combination of economic activities in space. How to choose a location reasonably is a problem that needs to be solved in the process of human production activities. Three principles are covered in the location selection theory: the principle of adapting to local conditions, the principle of dynamic balance, and the principle of unity.

4. Research methods

(1) Literature research method

The literature research method is to access a large number of domestic and foreign literature and research results about commercial location selection by logging in to the electronic library, and to conclude the research status and significance of commercial location selection through summarization. BESTORE's business location selection and research should be carried out to lay a solid theoretical foundation.

(2) Investigation method

There are two basic forms of survey methods, namely, questionnaire survey method and interview method. It is a research method that obtains relevant survey information by issuing questionnaires or conducting interviews to the research objects, so as to better understand or grasp the status of the research objects. Muji's customers conduct questionnaire surveys and interviews to gain a preliminary understanding of Muji's audience, which provides a reference for the research of this paper.

(3) Field visit method

This research intends to conduct on-the-spot inspections of some MUJI stores in Shanghai, to understand the spatial distribution characteristic factors that affect MUJI and how these factors affect them, and to grasp the specific location and surrounding environment of MUJI, so as to lay a foundation for the research.

(4) Statistical analysis method

Statistical analysis refers to the use of statistical methods to describe the quantitative characteristics of the survey data, and to use various mathematical models to explain the relationships, laws and development trends implied in the survey data. This paper uses IBM SPSS software to analyze the survey data of Muji's location and its surrounding environment to find out the correlation between things.

(5) Geographic information technology analysis method

GIS analysis takes the management and application of spatial database as the basic principle, and uses the analysis method of establishing models to provide various dynamic and intuitive information. The key part is to use computer technology to analyze and interpret the geographical environment, classify, summarize and store the various elements obtained in this process, and establish a comprehensive and detailed database management system, which is convenient for future research work. The speed of information acquisition lays a solid foundation for the visualization of the conclusion output.

5. Research significance

The spatial distribution characteristics and location strategy of commercial outlets directly determine the business performance and market image of the enterprise, and also play a certain guiding role in the overall deployment of the urban commercial environment. The choice of commercial outlets is a long-term large-scale investment, which is related to the development prospects of commercial outlets. The forward-looking spatial distribution characteristics of commercial outlets will provide an important basis for the formulation of business goals and business strategies, and play an active role in the realization of business goals and strategies. From the point of view of the ultimate goal of business operation, the accurate location of commercial outlets will help maximize the service scope of the store, thereby maximizing the economic benefits of the enterprise. In addition, the spatial distribution characteristics of an enterprise's commercial outlets are also a key step for the enterprise to establish a good market image.

The product concept and life concept advocated by MUJI will be accepted and recognized by consumers only in places where consumption is mature enough and consumption is refined enough. Therefore, analyzing the spatial distribution characteristics of MUJI and finding certain laws in the location selection strategy can reflect the characteristics of the social economy to a certain extent.

2. Analysis of distribution characteristics

1. Macroscopic distribution characteristics

MUJI has set up a total of 33 business locations in Shanghai. 1 is the regional headquarters, located in Jing'an Temple. 1 flagship store, located on Huaihai Middle Road. 1 airport store, located on the departure floor of Terminal 2 of Pudong International Airport. 3 restaurants are located in Zhongshan Park, Huaihai Middle Road and Shanghai Joy City. The rest are general stores.

The macro-spatial distribution characteristics of Shanghai Muji, from the perspective of the ring line, two-thirds of the stores are distributed within the inner ring line, followed by the middle ring, the outer ring, and the suburban ring. From the perspective of the administrative area, except for the store MUJI to GO Shanghai Pudong Airport, the rest are all located in the central urban area of ​​Shanghai. Although Hongkou District belongs to the central urban area, it does not have the layout of Muji. In terms of transportation hubs, MUJI has established stores in two major airports in Shanghai (Shanghai Hongqiao Airport, Shanghai Pudong International Airport) and two major railway stations (Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station). (See Figure 1, Table 1)

Figure 1 Spatial distribution of MUJI in Shanghai

Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

Table 1 Spatial distribution of MUJI in Shanghai

loop

Huangpu District

Jing'an District

Minhang District

Pudong New Area

Putuo District

Qingpu District

Xuhui District

Yangpu District

Changning District

total

suburban ring

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.03%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.03%

inner ring

9.09%

21.21%

0.00%

15.15%

3.03%

3.03%

9.09%

0.00%

6.06%

66.67%

outer ring

0.00%

0.00%

6.06%

3.03%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.03%

0.00%

12.12%

Central

0.00%

0.00%

6.06%

6.06%

3.03%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.03%

18.18%

total

9.09%

21.21%

12.12%

27.27%

6.06%

3.03%

9.09%

3.03%

9.09%

100.00%

In terms of density (see Figure 2), Muji has 3 clusters in Shanghai. The highest density is composed of 8 shops in Jing'an Temple, Nanjing West Road, Nanjing East Road, Huaihai Middle Road and Suhewan. Followed by four stores near the West Inner Ring Road and three stores in Lujiazui. The rest are point densities.

In general, the macro-spatial distribution characteristics of MUJI in Shanghai are as follows: mainly in the central urban area, taking into account the conditions of transportation hubs and business districts.

Figure 2 Kernel density analysis of spatial distribution of Shanghai Muji

Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

2. Microscopic distribution characteristics

In the 33 business locations established by MUJI in Shanghai, the floor layout of different stores can be analyzed, and the floor distribution table of Shanghai MUJI can be obtained (see Table 2). According to the analysis of the data, in terms of the micro-space layout of Shanghai Muji, restaurants tend to be arranged on the middle and high floors, and shops tend to be arranged on the lower floors. Nearly 40% of the shops are located on the first floor of the shopping mall. At the same time, due to the setting of subway entrances and exits, the first and second floors of the basement are also within the scope of site selection.

In general, the micro-spatial distribution characteristics of MUJI in Shanghai are as follows: the layout is mainly based on low-to-medium floors, taking into account store types, transportation hubs, flagship stores and other conditions.

Table 2 Floor distribution of Shanghai Muji

store type

-2

-1

1

2

3

4

35

total

Dining room

3.03%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

6.06%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

9.09%

Airport

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.03%

3.03%

shop

3.03%

9.09%

39.39%

18.18%

12.12%

3.03%

0.00%

0.00%

84.85%

headquarters

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.03%

0.00%

3.03%

total

6.06%

9.09%

39.39%

18.18%

18.18%

3.03%

3.03%

3.03%

100.00%

3. Research on site selection strategy

1. Factors affecting the choice of retail location

The factors of retail location selection generally include the following aspects: First, the consumer market conditions, such as the number of consumers, income, population composition and lifestyle, etc.; Second, the proximity of shopping space, generally refers to spatial distance and traffic conditions; The third is the competition between the retail industries, that is, the number of competitors in the same industry in the market area, and the level of development. The fourth is land price. Different levels of retail and commercial centers have different ability to pay land price. Land price is an important factor restricting the location selection of retail industry.

2. Analysis of Location Factors Affecting Muji Site Selection

Through the Pearson correlation analysis of the location factors related to MUJI, the following correlation analysis data can be obtained (see Table 3) to study the location factors that affect the location of MUJI.

Table 3 Pearson correlation analysis of location factors affecting MUJI site selection

location factor

Ring line class

Administrative district code

near subway station

number of lines

business center class

Vitality Index

Administrative area

Number of stores

0.090

*.513*

-0.105

-0.168

0.111

*.706*

Administrative area

Number of stores per capita

*.393

*-.383

0.009

0.213

-0.111

*-.442*

Administrative area

Average number of stores

*.528*

*-.725*

0.143

*.362

0.067

*-.661*

location factor

Administrative Region Population

Administrative Region GDP

Administrative area

average land price

Administrative area

population quality of life

Administrative area

Population density

Administrative area

GDP per capita

Number of stores

*.648*

*.802*

-0.317

0.084

*-.617*

-0.274

Administrative area

Number of stores per capita

*-.552*

-0.341

0.331

*.522*

-0.210

.379*

Administrative area

Average number of stores

*-.733*

*-.509*

*.702*

*.627*

0.259

*.768*

**. The correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed).

*. The correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed).

According to the layout map of Shanghai Muji and analysis of location data, it can be concluded that the location factors that affect the layout of Muji are:

(1) Transportation

The higher the accessibility of arterial traffic, the higher the level of hubs, the more permanent residents and institutions that attract and gather, the more developed the area, and the higher the economic density, thus ensuring the threshold demand for a large number of various businesses, for the commercial layout Provide market demand. The higher the accessibility of arterial road traffic, the more floating population can be brought to the region and the market demand outside the region can be increased.

Most of the MUJI stores are located in areas with convenient transportation, and there are a variety of transportation options.

(2) Population

The relationship between business location and population is mainly reflected in population density and per capita income level, both of which determine the purchasing power of business. At the same time, the density and purchasing power of the floating population deserve our special attention. MUJI is located in the central business district of the city, where per capita GDP is high and purchasing power is strong. At the same time, these areas have attracted a large number of floating population with high purchasing power, and the market demand is large.

(3) Land price

The CBD has extremely convenient transportation and is the node of the gathering-radiation of people flow/logistics/capital flow/information flow. Here the economic vitality index is high and the land price is high. The high-end/luxury/local specialty goods retail industry has a huge business circle, low purchase probability and high rent, so it is located in the center of the city. As a high-end product, Muji has a huge business circle. It is located in the center of the city and can cover the entire city and its surrounding areas. It is convenient to meet the needs of large-scale consumption and obtain rich information at the same time. Such as the Muji store located on Nanjing West Road and the Muji store located in Lujiazui. There is a significant correlation between the number of MUJI stores and the housing price and the level of the ring line. The higher the housing price, the higher the level of the ring line, that is, the higher the land price, and the more the number of stores in the central area of ​​the city.

(4) Culture

There is a significant positive correlation between the number of MUJI stores and the quality of life of the population in the administrative area, which means that the higher the quality of life of the population in the administrative area, the greater the number of MUJI stores. This is mainly affected by the location factor of culture. Regional purchasing preferences, consumption habits, and consumption levels have an important impact on the layout of Muji.

4. The influence and significance of distribution characteristics and site selection strategies on cities

According to each address of MUJI, select the housing price of Shanghai administrative area, the number of shops per land, the number of shops per capita, the population density of the administrative area, the GDP per capita (representing the level of regional economic development), the area of ​​the administrative area, the GDP of the administrative area, the location of the store, the subway station line There are 12 factors in total, such as number, ring line level, business center level, and vitality index, and analyze the relationship between the number of MUJI stores and these factors (see Table 2).

First, the number of MUJI stores is weakly correlated with house prices and store locations. The location selection of MUJI focuses on cost performance, and there is no strong demand for the first floor or entrance position, and the brand itself has a strong appeal and a fixed fan base. However, the demand for shopping malls is extremely high, and the contribution of rent and deduction points is low. (See Figure 3)

Figure 3 Distribution of land prices in Shanghai

Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

Second, the number of MUJI stores has a significant correlation with the population density of the administrative region, the GDP of the administrative region, and the area of ​​the administrative region, and the number of stores per capita has a significant relationship with the level of the ring line. This result confirms that the level of regional economic development, commercial development, traffic accessibility, and population density are the most favored factors. Seizing the bustling commercial area and finding the largest population flow route per unit time is one of Muji's important strategies. In comparison, Muji focuses more on the number of customers than the number of stores. Because MUJI is a household groceries brand, its products are suitable for consumption by the whole family and are in line with the positioning of the pursuit of quality family consumption places. (See Figures 4 and 5)

Figure 4 Distribution of population density in Shanghai

Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

Figure 5 Distribution of per capita GDP in Shanghai

Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

Third, the correlation between the number of MUJI stores and the level of commercial centers and the number of subway lines is extremely weak. The main reasons are as follows: ① In Shanghai, high-end shopping malls and subway stations are not the main distribution places for MUJI; ② Metro stations are passage spaces for the rapid flow of population, while MUJI is a simple and unpretentious space for people to pursue nature and live a slow life. The nature of the two is different, so there are very few Muji stores in the subway station; ③Pudong, Minhang, Baoshan and other suburbs are large, with a large number of subway stations, but the number of Muji stores is not the largest , so the correlation between the two is weak.

Fourth, the number of MUJI stores per capita is significantly related to the quality of life of the population in the administrative area. The goal of urban development is to improve the quality of life of urban residents and the competitiveness of cities. However, with the development of technology, the rhythm of urban life has accelerated, working hours have been extended and sleep hours have been shortened, income levels have increased but at the same time social pressure has increased, citizens’ community participation has declined, and not only has the time to interact with nature continues to decrease, but also Growing alienation from others, growing apathy in interpersonal relationships, disappearing intimacy and pleasure from face-to-face contact, and increasing scarcity of social belonging, trust, and security, all of which are desperately needed thing. The packaging of all products today is too luxurious, resulting in an extreme waste of resources. The products produced by MUJI are simple in design and restore the true meaning of value. Nowadays, consumers have a very strong brand awareness. Consumers not only demand good quality of products, but also want favorable prices. Muji's unique style and positioning make it unique, "rational satisfaction of consumer demand". Therefore, Muji's consumers in China are mostly middle-to-high-end people with economic strength and a certain pursuit of quality of life. Consumers at this age The segment covers the post-70s, post-80s and post-90s, with a wider audience. (See Figure 6)

Figure 6 Shanghai Residents' Quality of Life Index

Tuoduan tecdat | Shanghai Muji Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Location Strategy Research

V. Summary

Taking Shanghai Muji as an example, through the combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative research, the following conclusions can be drawn:

1. The macro-spatial distribution characteristics of MUJI are as follows: mainly in the central urban area, taking into account the conditions of transportation hubs and commercial areas. The characteristics of micro-spatial distribution are as follows: mainly low-to-medium floors, taking into account store types, transportation hubs, flagship stores and other conditions for layout.

2. The location factors that affect the location selection of MUJI mainly include: transportation, population, land price and culture.

3. The impact and significance of the spatial distribution of MUJI in Shanghai on the city: First, the number of MUJI stores is weakly correlated with house prices and store locations. Second, the number of MUJI stores has a significant correlation with the population density of the administrative region, the GDP of the administrative region, and the area of ​​the administrative region, and the number of stores per capita has a significant relationship with the level of the ring line. Third, the correlation between the number of MUJI stores and the level of commercial centers and the number of subway lines is extremely weak. Fourth, the number of MUJI stores per capita is significantly related to the quality of life of the population in the administrative area.

references

[1] Zhou Huilin, editor-in-chief. Shanghai Yearbook 2018. Shanghai: Editorial Department of Shanghai Yearbook, 2018.

[2] Editor-in-Chief Li Xiaojian. Economic Geography. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1999.09.

[3] Bai Guangrun. Applied Location Theory. Beijing: Science Press, 2009.09.

[4] Shi Yishao, Yang Fenglong. Spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of Starbucks coffee shops in Shanghai [J]. Economic Geography, 2018, (No. 5).

[5] Chen Yuegang, Deng Zhaolong, Wu Yan. Spatial distribution characteristics of enterprises in West Nanjing Road, Shanghai [J]. Urban Issues, 2017, (No. 3).

About the author

Herbert Hu focuses on data analysis, especially geographic data analysis. He is good at using Python, ArcGIS and other tools to organize, analyze and present data. He can interpret the needs in the data, provide customers with excellent solutions, and pursue innovation. and better results.