Some people say that 2019 will be Waterloo of the public chain, so it’s very important. Although the public chain is hot, its achievements are just as brilliant as Napoleon’s nearly unified Europe. What’s more, the public chain is still young. Bitcoin, the founder of bitcoin, is only 11 years old. It is still a long way to go. What’s the high point of development and what’s the high point of prosperity and decline?
But the 19-year public chain did not go well, because the story of tps-dapp could not be told any more. Many public chains follow the path of TPS promotion – developer community – DAPP development, but no matter how good or how broad the path is, as long as there are enough people to go, it will always be blocked, not to mention in the current narrow application scenarios of blockchain. Some of the main public chain networks have fallen to the ground and no one is using them at all. Because DAPP is not easy to develop, the application scenarios are only defi and spinach. Since they are not flattered, no one is developing them. If the road is blocked, the story will not go on. At the end, the audience and the hero are tired, so don’t bother.
In this context, is it meaningful for quarkchain to hold the second TPS competition “against the world’s will”?
On December 22, Beijing time, the second one month quarkchain TPS competition ended. With the positive response of community members and developers, the activity has also been strongly supported by many multimedia, developer community and domestic university alliance.
In this competition, the go version of the main website of quarkchain, under the careful adjustment of the competitors, even if the organizer repeatedly increased the challenge goal and difficulty, the goal of 100000, 200000 and 300000 TPS were all broken by the challengers. Finally, it is approved by the engineer,The final result of the competition is 318052。
For detailed competition reports, please see: the final results of the 310000 TPS quarkchain TPS competition are announced
This data, compared with the most mainstream electronic payment system and Ethereum performance, can be seen in the figure below. 310 thousand of the data, in theory, not only far exceeds the throughput capacity of the chain system of the previous generation, but also exceeds the data of VISA, even exceeding the peak value TPS of Alipay’s double eleven.
According to the market performance of public chain projects in the past 19 years, some people think that high TPS may not be a killer function to attract users to buy, but just a marketing story, which is also the source of Waterloo. Not to mention the causal problem between the two, in addition to marketing, just like the computing power of CPU for computer systems, bandwidth for the Internet, and even speed for means of transportation, higher TPS has profound significance for mainstream blockchain systemsThe higher TPS enables the application to have a wider range of fields, such as the function of defi, and enables the application to cope with more mainstream needs and attract more users.
From a broader perspective, TPS has far-reaching significance. Higher TPS also means more possibilities and is more likely to be the key factor to stimulate public chain innovation.
The remains of human primitive painting art in the late Paleolithic period at least 12000 years ago in Altamira Cave, Spain
Full CG animation “Lion King” released in summer of 2019
As shown in the picture above, one is an animal drawn on stone by early human beings 12000 years ago, while the other is an animal “drawn” by computer 19 years ago. From rock painting to oil painting, to CG art, the desire for simulation makes generations of artists continue to develop and try the latest technology, and such examples can be found everywhere in the history of human development. Human imagination promotes human beings to seek new technological development, and the development of technology opens up new imagination space for human beings. New perspectives and new inspirations make our dreams come true.
A high-performance blockchain system also has the opportunity to better carry and stimulate people’s imagination. Exploring higher TPS and implementing the performance of blockchain system will provide a broader imagination for the implementation of blockchain technology. This makes quarkchain’s exploration of higher TPS have more long-term significance besides showing the excellent performance of its own network.
Although the performance of quarkchain can’t represent the performance of the third party, it can’t be verified independently. It can be said that based on such performance, TPS is not the bottleneck of blockchain system compared with other problems to be solved.
Breakthrough on TPS
At the other end of the TPS DAPP story, there are also problemsDAPP is now hard to land. The direct reason is that there are too few application scenarios of DAPP in the current market, which are concentrated in several narrow fields such as defi and gambling games. Another important reason is that the tokens generated by DAPP are not native coins, but only contract coins with limited functions, such as Ethereum erc20 and Tron trc20. Their biggest problem is that they only have the warrant of assets and have no application value. They can neither call smart contracts nor pay transaction fees.
These restrictions make some potential DAPP developers, in order to make their products easier to use and have more functions, and avoid losing their autonomy, have to develop a set of blockchain system independently from scratch, such as raising a cat in ether. Development takes time, which naturally slows down the application landing speed. Moreover, each chain has its own family, data users do not share, and constantly develop the wheel repeatedly. Under the development trend of interconnection of all things, this kind of going against the trend is naturally unsustainable.
Many public chain projects have also found this problem. Such flexible compatibility and interoperability have become the focus of public chain development after TPS. At present, there are two kinds of mainstream solutionsThe heterogeneous fragment used by quarkchain and the one key chain used by Cosmos and Polkadot are the cross chain projects.
Fragmentation was first developed to improve the throughput capacity of the public chain system. However, as mentioned above, with the development of technology, fragmentation brings greater possibilities to the public chain: it will enable the whole public chain network to maintain diversity, rather than consistency, and make the whole public chain truly flat.
Heterogeneous fragmentation is a blockchain system that is connected to heterogeneous network, and the fragmentation on the whole network does not need to maintain rigid consistency. Different segments can have different characteristics and realize interconnection. For new functions or modification of network functions, only new functions need to be added to the network as segments. The innovation of application level can also be realized by adding a slice function to the network. With different function segments being added to the whole network, the whole network function will be more rich and perfect, and attract more functions to settle in, thus forming a positive cycle and continuously creating value.
In terms of specific applications, quarkchain has now realized heterogeneous fragmentation. Its heterogeneous fragmentation can support different fragments to use different consensus mechanisms, account models, transaction models and token economics. Different combinations and configurations of these elements can make different fragments have different functions, and these fragments can also be interconnected, greatly improving the compatibility and interoperability, and allowing projects with different needs to settle in.
Besides cross chain, it seems that cross chain should be an application layer solution rather than an underlying public chain, but the current mainstream cross chain projects, such as Polkadot’s side chain relay solution, have the platform function of the public chain. Interestingly, this solution is similar to the heterogeneous slicing technology mentioned above.
At present, cross chain technology has realized isomorphism and cross chain, and the security mechanism, consensus algorithm, network topology and block generation verification logic between chains are consistent or slightly different. Different transactions are sent on these different side chains, just like the fragmentation technology, which divides and governs the transactions in parallel, and then completes the verification through the relay chain. Increasing the side chain will increase the processing capacity. Similarly, these slightly different side chains can also enable the whole bottom layer to be compatible with different applications, improve the compatibility of the whole network, and realize data exchange within the network on the basis of isomorphic cross chain.
In the next stage, the cross chain interaction of the target heterogeneous chain is relatively complex. For example, the pow algorithm is used in bitcoin, while the traditional deterministic consensus algorithm is used in fabric of alliance chain. The composition form and deterministic guarantee mechanism of the blocks are very different. The direct cross chain interaction mechanism is not easy to design, which will be one of the goals of cross chain work in the future.
The improvement of TPS will greatly expand our imagination of the application prospect of blockchain. At the same time, easier upgrade, more flexible structure, better interoperability, these features become the complement and improvement of the whole public chain system in addition to performance, and they will also become the source of new imagination. Even if there are still more problems to be solved, and even if the industry has a long way to go, the new possibilities brought by high TPS and flexible structure will become the driving engine for the upward development of the public chain industry in the future.