• Multi class neural networks for machine learning: softmax


    We already know,logistic regression Decimals between 0 and 1.0 can be generated. For example, the logistic regression output value of an e-mail classifier is 0.8, indicating that the probability of e-mail being spam is 80%, and the probability of not being spam is 20%. Obviously, the sum of the probability that an e-mail is spam […]

  • Python uses time-varying Markov regime switching autoregressive model to analyze economic time series


    Original link:http://tecdat.cn/?p=22617 ============================================================== This paper provides an example of using Markov transformation model in statistical model to reproduce some results proposed by Kim and Nelson (1999). It applies the filter of Hamilton (1989) and the smoother of Kim (1994). %matplotlib inline import numpy as np import pandas as pd import statsmodels.api as sm from pandas_datareader.data import DataReader from datetime import datetime  DataReader(start=datetime(1947, 1, 1), end=datetime(2013, 4, 1))   Hamilton (1989) Markov Switching Model_  _ model_) This […]

  • Introduction to reinforcement learning


    Introduction to reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning (RL) is a field of machine learning. It is learning what to do (i.e. how to map the current situation into actions) to maximize the benefits of numerical learning. Learners will not be told what actions to take, but must try to find out which actions will produce the […]

  • How to implement full-text retrieval of IM SDK chat messages on electron


    preface Full text search based on local data plays an important role in the client requirements of IM scenario. The so-called full-text retrieval is a technology to find the location of a word in a large number of documents. In the past, relational databases can only be implemented through like, which has several disadvantages: The […]

  • HTML webpack plugin modify the title of the page


    Vue-cli2. X: modify index.js in the config directory Const title = ‘Title 1’ //Const title = ‘Title 2’ //Const title = ‘title 3’ module.exports = { title: title, dev: { … }, build: { … }, test: { … } Then you can use config.title in htmlwebpackplugin in webpack.dev.conf.js and webpack.prod.conf.js new HtmlWebpackPlugin({ title: config.title, […]

  • Using Python for exception detection


    By Rashida nasrin suckyCompile VKSource: towards Data Science Anomaly detection can be handled as a statistical task of outlier analysis. But if we develop a machine learning model, it can be automated as usual and save a lot of time. There are many use cases for exception detection. Credit card fraud detection, fault machine detection […]

  • Is the mean and expectation in statistical science the same thing?


    Mean value and expectation are two concepts that we often contact with. As we all know, mean value is the number of values that are summed first and then divided; What’s the expectation. In order to make it easier to understand, ordinary people will say that you can also understand expectations as mean. Can it […]

  • Textrank algorithm


    Textrank algorithm Td-idf is a word frequency based algorithm, while textrank is a graph based algorithm. Textrank is inspired by PageRank algorithm.   PageRank algorithm PageRankIt is mainly used to sort the web pages in the online search results。 PageRank gives a positive real number for each page,Indicates the importance of the web pageThe higher […]

  • What are PDF, PMF and CDF


    I still remember reading an article some time ago, which was to investigate what everyone did during the epidemic period. One of the articles was that we finally found out the difference between PDF and CDF during the epidemic period. Pdf, PMF and CDF are easily confused. Let’s take a look at these concepts today. […]

  • Do a good job in self defined forecast and explore the growth momentum of products


    “Even the most powerful companies will be in trouble if they don’t take action for the future.” ——Peter Drucker With the rapid development of mobile Internet, product homogenization is serious, but it also brings more fierce competition. Only by paying attention to the user‘s session path of each page and guiding them to have a […]

  • Monte Carlo integration


    By Cory maklinCompile VKSource: towards Data Science Usually, we can’t solve the integral analytically, we must use other methods, including Monte Carlo integral. As you may remember, the integral of a function can be interpreted as the area under the curve of the function. The working principle of Monte Carlo integration is to calculate a […]

  • Probabilistic linear regression with uncertain weights


    By Ruben winastwanCompile VKSource: towards Data Science When you study data science and machine learning, linear regression may be the first statistical method you come across. I guess it’s not the first time you’ve used linear regression. Therefore, in this paper, I want to discuss probabilistic linear regression rather than typical / deterministic linear regression. […]