When you first start using Linux, you may not be used to it, and many experts have the same experience. After all, they used to be novices. But now the Linux community is doing a great job providing new users with guidelines, manuals and basic technical documents to get started as soon as possible.
I first came into contact with Linux three years ago. Many people helped me through forums, online chat and e-mail. These “penguins” are really enthusiastic.
In this regard, I feel that I should make some contributions to the group that selflessly helps me. I should write something to my friends who just use Linux. Here I compiled seven habits that others told me when I first started. I believe that if you use these seven habits, you will feel safer and more convenient when you use Linux, and learn a lot of practical things. Finally, you will find that using Linux is also so pleasant.
1. Do not log in as root
This is the first thing you should pay attention to and abide by. We may have been used to windows before. We always thought that the higher the permission, the better, so we like to log in as an administrator account. But this may be an important reason why windows is often harassed and insecure by viruses. Now too many people are logging in with root.
The higher the authority, the greater the responsibility. With administrator authority, you need to be cautious about anything you do, but mistakes are still inevitable. I remember I first used SUSE Linux. There were many things to manage, but there was no image user interface. I didn’t know how to do it, so I naively logged out and logged in to the root user’s graphical interface. The default wallpaper for the root GUI is rows of highlighted mines. These symbols hovered in my mind. I was careful not to do anything wrong at last.
So what are the dangers of logging in as root?
Can you imagine that you would be afraid to swing without a protective net? This is the same as logging in as the root user. You will inadvertently destroy your system.
You may accidentally run malware. Generally, in root mode, all permissions are granted by default for the startup of any program.
If there are security vulnerabilities in your system that are not fixed, you may be completely controlled by others.
This is the practice of using UNIX. Unless you have to, don’t easily run anything under the root user. If a program that is not triggered by itself requests root permission, you should be careful.
Generally, we don’t have to log in to the root user interface. Here are some tips:
Use the “sudo” or “Su” command and exit when you finish managing
If you don’t know how to do this using the command line, you can use “gksu” or “kdesu”. For example, press Alt + F2 and type “gksu Nautilus” and end the program as soon as you finish
2. Name your file properly
In Linux environment, you can name files according to your wishes, but the following two points are not allowed: 1) “/” is dedicated to the root directory; 2) Do not use invalid characters. Others are technically OK, but in order to avoid future trouble, here are some experiences you can follow:
Empirically, only letters, numbers, connectors (-) and underscores ()
Avoid using special characters such as dollar sign ($), bracket and percent sign (%). These characters have special meaning for the shell and may cause conflicts
Avoid using spaces. It’s foolish to deal with files containing spaces on the terminal. You can use connectors or underscores instead of spaces.
These have basically become my habits, and I unconsciously abide by these guidelines when using windows and MAC.
3. Put your home directory on a separate partition
This will give you a lot of flexibility. By putting the home directory on a separate partition, you can reinstall the system or even upgrade your entire version without losing your data and personal settings. You can reset what you need in the root directory and keep the home partition. Now you can categorize whatever you need without worrying about your data and personal settings, and you can use them at any time.
If you happen to know this after you install the system, don’t be disappointed. You can complete it step by step according to carthik’s Guide entitled “move / home to it’s own partition” on ubantu blog.
4. Rational disaster management
Linux is relatively powerful and stable, but any system will crash. Before you ctrl-alt-del and restart, you should learn how to deal with the accidents you encounter. You need to know how to easily restore your system without restarting. Personally, I think this situation can be divided into several levels. If the previous step does not work, please turn to the next step:
I put the force close program on my taskbar. If there is a problem with any program, you can click the force close icon and end the program
If the previous step does not work, call the terminal, use “PS – a”, write down the process number of the problem program and end it
Use the “kill” command, such as “kill Firefox bin”
If the entire graphical interface is frozen, it is no longer possible for you to call the terminal. Press ctrl-alt-f1 to go to another terminal, so that you can use steps 2 and 3 to end the problem program
If not, you can use the Ctrl Alt backspace combination to restart your graphical interface, but note that this will end the GUI program you are running
Call ctrl-alt-f1 and then use Ctrl + Alt + Del. This will not restart your system immediately, but restart in normal mode, so it is safe (assuming you want to restart and ctrl-alt-f1 is available).
If all this doesn’t work, don’t remember to press the force restart button and try raise a skinny elephant
5. Active attempt
You may be satisfied with the current version and configuration of the design set by your friends, which is suitable for you. That’s good, but there may be something better. Why not try the flexibility and richness of Linux and open source? Don’t be afraid to try different programs, graphics management and desktop. Experiment until you find the one that suits you best. You can think that you live in the best place in the world, but there will be no harm in traveling around the world? Maybe you can find a better place to live. Even if you can’t, your travel time is worth tasting. You know more about other countries, their people, customs and ways of thinking. In the end, maybe you will like this attempt. Any new thing you try will increase your knowledge. In about a year, you will have a good grasp of Linux and the open source world.
I have personally tried at least 10 distribution methods, 4 desktop and 5 desktop management.
Before you try, you can refer to the following points:
Set up the system you feel most comfortable with, because you need a system that works all the time. So you can try the following points
You can use virtual machines to do this. Install a VMware or VirtualBox and use them for testing
If you don’t know how to use virtual machines, you can set up a separate partition to try
Best of all, you can use a set PC and another for testing. So you can try as you like
6. Be familiar with using your command line
Although I do not advocate that you must learn the command line, too many articles have emphasized the importance of learning the command line. Here I assume that you already know its importance and how to use it to deal with some simple management tasks. You can configure it according to the instructions and manuals. But don’t just copy and paste. In other words, not only do you execute commands without thinking, many people with free nature advise you to try to deeply understand the meaning of each command line and what it can do. Why does the manual do this instead of that? Understand the basic principles of the steps you do.
After a while, you will feel that you can use it well.
Finally, you will find that it is just a disguised language. Each command may be just the first letter of some words or the abbreviation of a word. You want your dog to understand the long sentence “spike fetch ball”. Why not try to understand “sudo MV / file1 / File2”?
7. Make some preparations for your use
I have had a lot of such experiences when a friend asked me to do something on his computer, but there would be embarrassment due to the operating system he chose. Sometimes I have something urgent, but the only computer has a frustrating operating system. Don’t be painful. Wear your Linux system with you, whether it’s stored on a USB flash disk or CD. There are quite a number of Linux versions, such as knoppix, DSL and Puppy Linux
The above isLiangxu tutorial networkSeven suggestions for Linux beginners to share with friends.
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