Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

Time:2021-9-15

preface

The article is included ingithubWelcome to review

This is a true story, when the author participated in the postgraduate entrance examination retest this year, due to the epidemic situation, it was an online retest, but some processes remained unchanged. After the machine test + written test, there was an interview.

Then we began to have a tense interview. As we all know, the interview was in English at the beginning. When the teacher said that we should start oral English, I hid the familiar personal introduction I had memorized in my mind and was preparing to leak out. When the teacher said “please introduce yourself”, things suddenly reversed and the teacher said:“Do you know who won the Turing prize?“. I frowned hard and pretended to be thinking hard (I wouldn’t have), and then I didn’t forget to secretly tell me in Chinese: Turing Award. I looked deeply at the interviewer and said:“Sorry, I don’t know”I only know this award, but I don’t know who won it.

Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

The teacher said it didn’t matter. Another one:“Do you know who put forward the relational model of relational database?”, I stopped for a long time, frowned and pretended not to hear clearly. The teacher spoke Chinese directly“Do you know who proposed the relational model of relational database?”I frowned more tightly and said:“Sorry, I don’t know”(this…).

Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

At this time, I felt too unlucky to ask this question, but fortunately, the teacher asked me what encryption algorithms were. I had some crawler experience and knew some encryption algorithms. I stumbled out in English and introduced some differences. Fortunately, the answers in the back were OK, and the written test and machine test in the front were also OK. It was very dangerousGo ashore.

Finally, the teacher said that the proponent of the relationship model is also the winner of the Turing Award. I wondered: “does the teacher think I know who proposed the relationship model, but I don’t know what award he won! I don’t know who won the Turing Award, and I don’t know who proposed the relationship model”! But I smiled and said to the teacher:“Ha ha, this has touched the blind spot. Go back and learn about it.”! But I don’t know. You all know.

What is the Turing prize

Turing Award, the full name of a.m. Turing Award, is a computer Award established by the American Computer Association (ACM) in 1966. Its name is taken from Alan M. Turing, which aims to reward individuals who have made important contributions to the computer industry. The Turing prize has high requirements for award conditions and strict award procedures. Generally, it is awarded to only one computer scientist every year. Turing Award is the highest international award in the field of computer, known as“Nobel Prize in computer industry”

Turing awards are generally awarded in late March each year. From 1966 to 2019, the Turing prize was awarded to 72 winners, mainly American and European scientists. According to statistics, as of March 2020, the number of Turing Award winners in universities around the world is Stanford University (28), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (26), University of California Berkeley (25), Harvard University (14) and Princeton University (14).

In 2000,Chinese scientist Yao Qizhi (born in Shanghai) won the Turing AwardIt is the first and only time for Chinese to win the Turing Award.

Dr. Codd and relationship model

Of course, I didn’t know who won the Turing Award in the short term (after the retest, I should play, I should finish the design, I should finish the design, and I should open the black), but after all, it was a once barrier. After a long time, I was still unwilling to open Baidu searchRelational database relational modelKeyword found the answer:

Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

I also found the answer. By the way, let’s also popularize science:

In 1970, a researcher at IBME. Dr. F. CoddPublished the article “relational model of large shared data banks”, put forward the concept of relational model, discussed the paradigm theory and 12 criteria for measuring relational system, such as defining some relational algebraic operations, studying the functional correlation of data, and defining the third paradigm of relationship, thus creating the research on the relational method of database and the theory of data standardization,He won the Turing prize in 1981.

Later, Codd successively published many articles, which laid the foundation of relational database. The relational model has strict mathematical foundation, high abstraction level, simple and clear, easy to understand and use. However, at that time, some people thought that the relational model was an ideal data model and it was unrealistic to realize DBMS. In particular, they were worried that the performance of relational database was difficult to accept, and some people regarded it as a serious threat to the standardization of mesh database. In order to promote the understanding of the problem, ACM took the lead in organizing a seminar in 1974, at which a debate between the two factions supporting and opposing relational databases led by Codd and Bachman was held. This famous debate promoted the development of relational database and made it finally become the mainstream of modern database products.

Teach you a move: when the interviewer asks you if you are familiar with relational database (MySQL), you go toDr CoddHe won the Turing prize in 1981 for his research in relational database theory, and he looked with admiration and admiration. The interviewer must feel good: the young man’s foundation is OK, his attitude is also very good, plus points! No accident, the probability of getting an offer safely increases greatly! (if it works, remember to come back three times in a row.).

Algorithm and Turing Award

Dijkstra

Although the blind spot of the winner of the Turing Award has been broken in my heart, I can’t stop wondering who won the Turing Award. Most of them are in the field of artificial intelligence mathematics, and some are at the bottom or related to the database. They are strange and difficult to remember. I’m a little disappointed. But suddenly found a familiar face: Dijkstra

Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

Wow, this algorithm is not something we must learn in data structure and algorithm graph theory. Graph theory algorithms are countable, Dijkstra, prim, Floyed, plus classic DFS and BFS! I am excited to open the introduction of Dijkstra, who is calledFather of structural programming, he has the following achievements:

Known: goto harmful theory (familiar); The designer and implementer of the first ALGOL 60 compiler (awesome); The designer and developer of the operating system (what a big guy!);

Familiar: Dijkstra shortest path algorithm (famous for it); The creator of banker algorithm; Solved the problem of “philosopher dinner”; Propose semaphores and PV primitives;

At this time, I was shocked. I know PV semaphores and primitives, bankers’ algorithms and philosophers’ dining problems are classic problems of the operating system. Unexpectedly, they were put forward and discovered by big brother Dijkstra. They are really strong! alsoDijkstraAnd withD. E. KnuthAnd called the greatest computer scientist of our time.

Floyd (Freud)

Dijkstra is a classic single source shortest path algorithm, which corresponds to the popular multi-source shortest path algorithm Floyd algorithm. The name of the algorithm is one of the founders1978 Turing Award winnerNamed after Robert Freud, Professor of computer science at Stanford University. In addition, in terms of algorithm, Floyd and J. Williams jointly invented the famous algorithm in 1964Heap sorting algorithm HEAPSORT(I just wrote it a few days ago and didn’t find it)!

Hoare

When it comes to sorting, fast sorting must be indispensable, sir hall isQuick sortCoincidentally, sir hall won the Turing Award in 1980.

Niklaus Wirth (worth)

Niklaus Wirth, the father of Pascal who won the Turing Award with one sentence, the sentence that won him the Turing prize is his famous formula:“Algorithm + data structure = Program”, as programmers, we heard this sentence from the teacher in the first class of C language or data structure and algorithm in college. The influence of this formula on computer science is similar to Einstein’s “E = MC ^ 2” in Physics – a formula shows the essence of the program.

epilogue

Found an interesting connection through a small thing. They all have a common connection – Turing Award. In the past, my cognition was as follows:

Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

Through the arrangement and study of this article, we now have a more organized understanding of some knowledge:

Science sharing | it turns out that these Turing awards are hidden around us

Of course, there are many winners of Turing awards. Each winner is a great talent and a model of our generation. Here, only the winners who are connected, familiar with data structures and algorithms are listed, and others are not listed one by one!

Although this is not a very big thing, it comes from a question in the retest, but the subsequent search always gives me a new feeling about the familiar algorithms and characters:So it’s still like this!There are many similar places in life, work, or study. We may only be one step away from finding more, establishing more effective connections and knowledge architecture. And we often float on the surface, hoping to be the same as everyone in our study and life in the futureConscientious person

Finally, let me ask you a question. Do you know why the Turing trophy is a silver bowl?

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