Python namespace and scope



  • Namespaces: used to store the binding relationship between name and memory address. It is the division of stack area
  • Function: the namespace can store the same name in the stack area, so as to solve the naming conflict
  • There are three types of namespaces:
    1. Built in namespace
    2. Global namespace
    3. Local namespace

Built in namespace

  • Built in namespace: used to store the built-in names in the Python interpreter
  • Life cycle: generated when the Python interpreter is started, and destroyed when the Python interpreter is closed
  • For example:printinputint

Global namespace

  • Global namespace: the name generated by running the top-level code, or all the names except those defined in the function and built-in are global namespaces
  • Life cycle: generated when the python file is executed, and destroyed after the python file is executed
  • For example:
#Variable name a
a = 1

#Function name func
def func():

#Class name MyClass
class MyClass:

Local namespace

  • Local namespace: the name in the function generated during the operation of the function body code when calling the function
  • Life cycle: generated during function call and destroyed after function call
  • For example:
def func(x, y):

func(1, 2)

Namespace order

  • Namespace loading order: built in namespace – > global namespace – > local namespace
  • Namespace destruction order: local namespace – > global namespace – > built-in namespace
  • Search priority of Name: search one level up from the current location


global scope

  • Global scope: built in namespace, global namespace
  • characteristic:
    1. Global survival
    2. Globally valid: shared by all functions

Local scope

  • Local scope: local namespace
  • characteristic:
    1. Temporary survival
    2. Locally valid: valid within a function

Legb principle

The calling order of finding variables adopts the legb principle (i.e. the proximity principle)
B —— Builtin(Python); Namespace of Python built-in module (built-in scope)
G —— Global(module); Namespace (global scope) where the function is located outside
E —— Enclosing function locals; Scope of external nested function (nested scope)
L —— Local(function); Scope within the current function (local scope)
According to the principle of proximity, search from bottom to top and from inside to outside

Global and nonlocal

  • Global: global variables declared and modified
  • Nonlocal: modify local variables (local variables of the previous layer of the current function)
#Use of global
x = 1
def func():
	global x
	x = 2

#Use of nonlocal
def func1():
	x = 1
	def func2():
		nonlocal x
		x = 2


  1. Namespace is a division of stack. What really exists is stack area. A namespace is just a virtual partition
  2. Namespaces are prioritized and not nested
  3. The “nested relationship” of namespaces determines the search order of names
  4. The “nesting” of namespaces is based on the function definition stage

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