1. Von Neumann architecture
Most modern computers are based on von Neumann architecture, which has the following characteristics:
- All data and instructions processed by computer are represented by binary numbers;
- Instructions and data are stored in the same memory without distinction;
- Execute each instruction of the program in sequence;
- Computer hardware consists of arithmetic unit, controller, memory, input device and output device.
In terms of function, the internal structure of general CPU can be divided into three parts: control unit, logic operation unit and storage unit.
- The controller consists of program counter, instruction register, instruction decoder, timing generator and operation controller. It is a computer command system, which completes the command work of the computer.
- The arithmetic unit is composed of arithmetic logic unit (ALU), accumulation register, data buffer register and state condition register. It is a data processing unit, which can complete various arithmetic and logic operations of computer. Compared with the controller, the arithmetic unit accepts the command of the controller and carries out the action. That is to say, all the operations of the arithmetic unit are directed by the control signals sent by the controller, so it is the executive part.
- The storage unit is mainly composed of some general registers and CPU on-chip cache, which is mainly used to store data and intermediate results of operation
The work of CPU can be divided into five stages: fetching instruction, decoding instruction, executing instruction, accessing number and result writing back
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