At that time, China’s IT industry, as well as Ni Guangnan himself, had been bitter about operating systems and chips without independent intellectual property rights. (18 years, still). Xu Guanhua, then Minister of science and technology, once said that “China’s information industry lacks core and few soul”. The core refers to the chip, and the soul refers to the operating system.
————Liang Ning (assistant of Ni Guangnan, academician of Chinese Academy of engineering from 2000 to 2002, deeply participated in the research and development of Hongqi Linux operating system, Yongzhong office, ark CPU and NC thin client)
Since the previous year, some American interest groups have proposed and started to implement the “Sino US science and technology war” in an attempt to suppress China from the scientific and technological level. For China, in the field of science and technology, especially in the field of it, there are two weaknesses that cannot be ignored. One is chip, the other is operating system. Next, we will take a look at the development history and current situation of domestic operating systems.
The most important operating systems are PC desktop operating system and mobile operating system. Among them, the PC operating system is more “important”, because it can not be separated from small personal office and national defense. At present, the PC desktop operating system is dominated by windows and MacOS. Of course, less than 3% of the market share is reserved for open source Linux. Is there no other operating system to survive? The answer is No. As far as China is concerned, there are as many as 15 well-known domestic operating systems at present, but as mentioned above, they have little space for survival.
The localization of China’s operating system began at the end of the 20th century. On April 8, 1999, Xteam Linux 1.0, the first domestic operating system based on Linux / Fedora, was released, which opened the way for the localization of operating system. Since then, several companies have launched a number of operating systems, but like many other operating systems in other countries, they are finally defeated by windows and MacOS, and can only stay on the edge of the market.
Since April 8, 2014, Microsoft of the United States stopped providing service support for Windows XP SP3 operating system. In 2020, Microsoft stopped providing service support for Windows 7. In addition, the United States began to launch a “science and technology war” against China’s chip industry, and domestic operating systems once again became the top issue.
Can we make an excellent operating system
If the U.S. government forbids us to use windows and Mac OS operating systems, can we have a domestic operating system to withstand this task?
At present, the domestic operating systems are basically based on the Linux kernel, but this is not a very humiliating thing, because the famous Android is also based on the Linus kernel. In the words of Ni Guangnan, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, “the domestic PC operating system based on Linux is not a technological retrogression, because the self-developed operating system is iterating to a more advanced level. At present, the self-developed operating system is no better than windows in terms of interactive experience, interface design, security, stability and so on?
The answer is ecology. Microsoft and apple have established a complete ecosystem in the market because of the preconceived idea of the United States. A new ecosystem can only be established through a virtuous circle of the market, which is very difficult. Even Microsoft, the “big brother” of the PC operating system, has not escaped this difficulty in entering the mobile terminal operating system, because the ecological establishment is too slow, the result is only a failure. In October 2010, Microsoft released the first version of windows phone mobile phone operating system. However, five years later, the market share of Windows Phone in Europe, the United States and China was still in a poor single digit. Now Microsoft has basically abandoned Windows Phone.
Therefore, in order to develop domestic operating systems, the first thing is to establish an ecology, so that countless developers can develop software on this ecology, break through the plight of few domestic operating software in professional fields, and try to expand more application space. But then again, without a user based operating system, who is willing to develop software?
At present, there are two “schools” of domestic operating systems
The first school is the traditional operating system manufacturers that develop operating systems for desktop and server products. For example: Galaxy Kirin, bid winner Kirin. These manufacturers have certain government and enterprise orders. But it also relies more on the traditional path, focusing on the existing business, polishing the product maturity, optimizing the desktop applications such as Linux server, computer and so on.
Another big school is the emerging forces. Through their own unique technology and innovative ideas to explore the domestic operating system market. Such as Hongmeng, Alibaba yunos, Tencent, techtech systems, etc.
Let’s take a look at the future of domestic operating systems from Hongmeng, which has attracted much attention recently. At the Huawei Developer Conference on August 9 last year, Yu Chengdong, CEO of Huawei’s consumer business, said that the huge redundancy of Android / Linux kernel code makes it difficult to ensure the smooth experience of different terminals. In addition, the interconnection of multiple terminals puts forward higher requirements for device security, which requires a powerful operating system to integrate hardware and software Software integration.
It is based on this idea that Hongmeng came into being. It is not difficult to find that Hongmeng’s ambition is not only in mobile terminal, PC terminal, but also in almost all intelligent terminals.
In a warm-blooded sentence, “the new opportunity brought by the era of Internet of things has finally been waited for by Huawei. The high-speed data transmission capability brought by 5g enables better interconnection between various products. Suppose a scene in which you use a smart screen as a screen, play music with an intelligent stereo, and work with a PC. these devices are interconnected and have an operating system, Hongmeng. Complex configuration process and incompatible bugs will be history at this moment.
Although Hongmeng 2.0 is still in development, Huawei, a communications giant with dual manufacturing capabilities of hardware and software, is the most hopeful to achieve this. In a word, it is better to catch up behind the scenes or overtake on the curve.
At present, the domestic PC desktop and server operating system are excellent
The system is jointly built by the software and integrated circuit promotion center of the Ministry of industry and information technology and the University of Defense Science and technology. It is customized for Chinese users, pre installed and provides a large number of software services suitable for Chinese users through the software center. The latest “youqilin” operating system has realized the CPU chip supporting arm and x86 architecture.
2、 Red Flag Linux
The operating system was first used in August 1999, and is mainly used in some departments. However, the system has not been updated for a long time, and the R & D company has been dissolved on February 10, 2014. However, the good news is that Zhongke Hongqi will continue to develop the domestic operating software of Hongqi Linux.
At present, the Ministry of industry and chemical industry, State Grid, Bank of China, CCTV and other units are still using red flag Linux, and the latest desktop operating system has been updated to version 10.0.
The system is a combination of civilian “bid winning Linux” operating system and military “Yinhe Qilin” operating system, and finally appears in the market as a new brand of “bid winning Qilin”. This system has also become the first Linux market share system in China from 2018 to 2019. In addition, the system has been independently developed for x86 and other domestic CPU platforms such as Loongson, Shenwei, Zhongzhi, Feiteng, etc., and has taken the lead in supporting x86 and domestic CPU platforms.
4、 Deep Linux
The operating system appeared in 2004, and it is recommended to use. The system is mainly used for civilian version, and its source code is open and controllable. At present, the cumulative download amount is tens of millions of times. It was once the highest Linux operating system in China on Distrowatch. At present, they are solving various compatibility problems caused by the migration of Windows platform software.
5、 ZTE new fulcrum desktop operating system
This system comes from ZTE. It is the biggest black horse in the domestic operating system, and it is also a relatively mature system. The desktop operating system is also developed based on the open source Linux core. In addition, it also supports chip production (megachip, Shenwei, Loongson, arm) and hardware and software. At present, it has gathered some commonly used application software with high maturity.
6、 Starting operating system (startos)
The operating system appeared in 2005, also belongs to the civil version, yumulinfeng team released, you may not be unfamiliar with this team. The system interface imitates the theme of windows, and according to the habits of Chinese people, it has pre installed the commonly used high-quality software. In 2012, Yulin Mufeng renamed its whole line as “start operating system” startos. The advantages of this system are beautiful interface, simple operation and installation.
7、 China KFD desktop operating system
The system is also a desktop operating system based on the open source Linux core, and is fully adapted and optimized with the domestic machine based on megachip (compatible with X86 platform). It is also a beautiful and easy-to-use desktop environment system for Chinese users. In addition, the system can well support the mainstream hardware platform and most computer peripherals.
8、 UOS system
This is a relatively young domestic operating system, which was announced by ZTE new fulcrum, China Electronics Group and other enterprises on the domestic official website in October 2019, and released the UOS external testing and opening plan. So far, it has been used in Huawei’s domestic PC, and the UOS system can also be used on ordinary home computers, and the performance is still good. In addition, the system has also achieved adaptation on the domestic CPU such as Longxin and Feiteng, and it is actively carrying out more adaptation work.
Compared with windows, the pages of UOS are more exquisite, and consumers can choose from the efficient mode and fashion mode. If it is only for daily work, UOS can be fully satisfied. However, if professional software, such as PS, is needed, it can not be adapted for the time being, and it is being further improved.
Although this new era of Internet of things provides a new opportunity for domestic operating systems to overcome the super challenge, we still can’t skip the ecological barrier. Ren Zhengfei, the founder of Huawei, said of Hongmeng OS, “the most important thing for operating systems is to establish ecology. It will take about two or three years to rebuild a good ecosystem. “
We can see that Huawei is now working hard to create an ecology. At the Huawei full connectivity Conference on September 23, Zhang Ping An, President of cloud services for Huawei’s consumer business, said: “Huawei’s HMS ecosystem has officially opened five basic services, namely search engine, map engine, browsing engine, advertising engine and payment engine, to developers and partners around the world. At present, it is developing globally The number of applications integrated with HMS core has reached 1.8 million, and the number of active users in Huawei’s application store has exceeded 490 million. From January to August 2020, more than 261 billion applications have been distributed. “
I’m pleased with this achievement, because we seem to be getting closer and closer to the day when we untie the “shackles of the operating system”.
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