First of all, insurance is the most important role of protection.
Reasonable allocation of insurance suitable for our own, can let us not only do not have too much economic pressure, but also let the future life without worries~
But remember, do not buy insurance blindly, because there are too many holes in it.
You must learn and understand the essence of each insurance before you buy it.
Let’s look at a picture
This picture is called the financial pyramid. From the bottom to the top of the pyramid, there are different investment products.
The higher you go up, the higher the potential risk of investment products and the higher the possible income.
From the bottom of the Treasury bonds, time deposits to the top of the industrial collectibles, we basically cover the types of investment products that we commonly see in the market.
We can see that:
Low risk: fixed deposit, national debt, monetary fund, national debt reverse repurchase, local government debt, and some bank financial management;
Medium risk: corporate bonds (AA or above is preferred), some funds, some bank financing;
High risk: some funds, stocks, P2P, trust, some bank financing, foreign exchange, futures, precious metals, industry, collectibles, etc.
Explain one by one:
Trust (threshold of 1 million), foreign exchange futures, precious metals and collectibles are all relatively high-risk, with high threshold.
P2P: high risk, more than 3000 companies have problems or run away, and the principal and interest can not be collected.
P2P is lack of strict supervision and investment should be cautious and cautious. If someone tells you that P2P has 15% revenue and there is no risk at all, don’t touch it!
You must not invest more than 30% of the funds you can invest in this platform.
Moreover, before investment, we need to investigate the whole operation of the platform and financial risk control, or have the backing of large companies.
Bank financial products, the risk span is very large, from low to high.
Generally, it is 50000 threshold, and it is divided into bank’s own issue and third-party issue, bank’s consignment.
Therefore, investment bank financial products, we must read the product manual. What is the investment direction and time limit of the raised funds? How to make a profit? Break even? Break even floating interest or break even? wait. Don’t see the bank just think it’s low risk.
In addition, another disadvantage of bank financial management is that the service charge is very high.
Stocks, stocks in the financial pyramid belongs to the high-risk position, for many people who buy stocks, stock only means the six digit code input when buying.
But in fact, the six figures represent one listed company after another. When you buy the stock of a listed company, you have become the shareholder of the listed company and one of the owners. If the stock of the company falls, you will lose money and the stock of the company will rise. You can enjoy the rising income. Some listed companies will also give dividends to shareholders regularly.
Unlike bonds, when you buy corporate bonds, you become the creditor of the company. The company is obliged to repay you the principal and interest, but you can’t enjoy the benefits of the company’s growth.
Buy the company’s stock, the company has no obligation to pay back your money when the stock loses. But you also have the opportunity to enjoy the high benefits of growing a quality company.
There are many types of funds, medium and low, monetary funds belong to low risk, bond funds belong to medium risk, and stock funds belong to high risk.
Monetary funds (such as Yu EBAO) are characterized by safety and good liquidity.
Local government debt, corporate debt need to examine the borrower, repayment ability, interest and borrowing time. The threshold of corporate debt above AAA level is 3 million.
The risk of treasury bond reverse repurchase is very low, the liquidity is good, and the threshold is low; it can only be bought back in the securities market (you need to open an account in a securities company).
The national debt has the national credit, the risk is extremely low or no risk.
Time deposits are also very low-risk or risk-free. Therefore, if someone recommends that the yield of investment products is higher than that of treasury bonds, and that there is no risk, we need to be vigilant.
In fact, through the analysis, we realize that the common investment products in the market, and we understand that it is not enough to save money in the bank and buy yu’ebao for a long time. Excluding high risks and low returns, if we want to win inflation through investment and financial management, the investment products that ordinary people can choose are funds and stocks.
In the process of financial investment, we often overemphasize the income, but ignore the risk. In fact, risk and income are inseparable
Here are three sentences describing the relationship between risk and return
(1) Low risk does not necessarily mean low return.
If you are patient and wait for an investment to be undervalued enough and then buy it, the risk is usually very low and can bring you enough return.
Of course, looking for this kind of investment requires knowledge and methods.
(2) High risk does not necessarily mean high return.
In June 2017, the “igofx” collapsed. This so-called “lying down to earn US dollars” trading platform has caused nearly 400000 investors to lose nearly 30 billion yuan.
It claims that it can get 7 times a year and 66 times a year in two years. With the addition of the MLM sharing mechanism, it quickly attracted a large number of investors.
Investment of 10000 yuan, one year to 70000, two years to 660000 yuan, introduce new people in the platform investment can also share. People who have a little knowledge of financial management and investment know that this is impossible.
However, the temptation of getting rich in the short term, the website with high packaging, the pledge of friends and relatives, and the early dividend, let many people gradually invest their hard savings without knowing anything about foreign exchange and the platform.
This kind of high-risk investment, which may run away at any time, can not bring you 7 times a year or 66 times a year.
Most of the time, you’re looking at high yields, but others are looking at your principal.
(3) Low return does not necessarily mean low risk.
The Ponzi scheme of Bernard Madoff, the former chairman of NASDAQ, promised an annualized rate of return of 10%;
At the end of 2015, the promised revenue of e-lease, which was filed for investigation, was only 9-11%.
Many small partners fall into scams because they believe that such a low rate of return can be achieved in many ways, so it should be very safe. However, it is this kind of thinking blind area that makes people fall into traps and not consciously.
Most of us are ordinary people, and the money we earn is the wages we pay for our time and energy.
Just because it is not easy to make money, we should understand before financial investment that the primary purpose of financial investment is to protect one’s purse and not to let paper fraud succeed easily. We should not invest blindly, otherwise we will lose the principal we have accumulated hard.
On the basis of meeting these two points, let’s talk about making money.
Through learning and actual combat, we will find that the terrible is always unknown.
Reverse repurchase of treasury bonds
1. Next, I’d like to introduce a special investment product for Xiaobai: reverse repurchase of treasury bonds.
Although the popularity of treasury bond reverse repurchase is not high, in fact, it is especially suitable for children's shoes to learn investment and financial management, and it is most suitable for collecting wool to earn some pocket money. For example, at a special time point of the year, the annualized yield of 20% - 30% is sometimes achieved. On September 29, 2016, the reverse repurchase rate of 1-day treasury bonds of Shanghai Stock Exchange broke through 45% in the intraday trading. Is there any sense of adverse weather? Let's review what the reverse repurchase is. In fact, it is a kind of short-term loan. Individuals borrow their own funds to obtain fixed interest income; borrowers (generally large enterprises) obtain this loan with their own national debt (or bonds with a certain rating) as collateral, and repay the principal and interest after maturity. The reverse repurchase of treasury bonds is the behavior of the company, short-term overnight borrowing, the actual amount of borrowing is very large. In other words, people who borrow money from your mortgage bonds have at least 3 million assets.
The national debt here is actually a kind of collateral. As we all know, the risk of national debt is very low, so it is very safe to use the national debt as collateral.
So why do companies borrow at high interest rates?
When the market is short of money (the bank system offsets the performance and the short-term borrowing of enterprises and companies), enterprises will borrow money through high interest rates in various channels, and treasury bond reverse repurchase is one of the channels.
2. Let’s take a look at its advantages
① Security, no loss: the reverse repurchase of treasury bonds, between you and the borrower, both the bond mortgage, and China securities registration and Clearing Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as zhongdeng company, similar to the role of the stock exchange) is under supervision and management. If the borrower fails to repay the money, zhongdeng company will help you get the money back;
② Low risk and high return: the yield of reverse repurchase is related to the capital side of the market. The more tense the capital is, the more money the market needs, and the higher the yield of reverse repurchase is;
③ Easy to operate: stock account can be directly sold, input code can be, fast operation, due funds automatically to account;
④ The service charge is low.
3. After talking about its advantages, let’s see which groups are suitable for.
① People who can only deposit in banks and balance their money, but want to get high income (do you feel that this is talking about the original self?) ;
② Investors (the money in our stock market is not profitable if it is left in vain, but it can be used to buy stocks the next day after it can be used to buy shares through one day’s reverse repurchase);
③ People with spare money at home;
④ Just launched very fresh, hands itchy investment novice. Fund stocks will not, to point of reverse repurchase to relieve itching~
4. There are 18 types of reverse repurchase of treasury bonds, 9 in Shanghai and 9 in Shenzhen. The specific varieties are as follows:
Shanghai stock market is reverse repurchase of treasury bonds, while Shenzhen stock market is reverse repurchase of corporate bonds.
What we should bear in mind is that borrowing one day is one-day reverse repurchase, and borrowing seven days is seven day reverse repurchase. At present, short-term products such as 1-day, 3-day and 7-day are more active in the market.
In addition, there is a big difference in the purchase threshold between Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets.
The Shanghai stock market is relatively high: 1000 yuan for one hand, from 100 hands, that is to say, one operation needs at least 100000 yuan. If you want to sell more, you should add the amount according to the integral multiple of 100000, 200000, 300000 No more than 10 million.
Shenzhen is a lot of people-friendly: 100 yuan for one hand, from 10 hands. If you want to sell more, you should add up to 1000, 2000, 3000 No ceiling.
The trading time of treasury bond reverse repurchase is the same as that of stocks, which can only be carried out at the opening time, that is, from 9:30-11:30 in the morning and 13:00-15:00 in the afternoon from Monday to Friday. It is not allowed to operate on national legal holidays.
When will the borrowed money come back? The arrival date of reverse repurchase fund is t + 1, and the withdrawal date is t + 2. Take one day of reverse repurchase as an example. If you buy on the same day, it will arrive before the opening of the next trading day. That is to say, it will not affect the stock trading of shareholders the next day. On the next trading day, you can withdraw cash and transfer it to your bank card.
Note: the general weekend does not open, the date of account to be postponed! For example, if you buy a one-day reverse repurchase on Friday, the money will not be returned to your account until next Monday. If you want to withdraw cash, you have to wait until next Tuesday.
Next, we will introduce the transaction costs. There are also handling charges for reverse repurchase, but they are very low. For every 100000 yuan, the fees are 1-30 yuan and 1000 yuan, only 0.01-0.3 yuan is needed. The specific charging standards are as follows:
Don’t you think the profit is too high? This is determined by the short-term capital demand, and the daily income is not very brilliant, but in some special times, such as when the market is short of money, it can achieve an annual income of 20% or even more. Although it can only earn a day or two, it is also a good cash management tool.
When will the revenue be higher?
1. From a year’s perspective, interest rates will soar at the end of the month, the end of the quarter, the middle of the year and the end of the year when money is scarce.
2. From a week’s point of view, the interest rate on Thursday will be higher.
3. From the perspective of the time period of the day, the opening half an hour a day is a good opportunity to operate, that is, from 9:30 to 10:00.
There is a point to be noted here. We should carefully consider the reverse repurchase of a transaction for a long time, because once the transaction is completed, the unexpired money will not be taken out.
This is different from the bank’s fixed deposit, ha. If you are in urgent need of fixed deposit and willing to bear the loss of fixed interest, you can withdraw it in advance.
In order to operate reverse repurchase, two conditions must be met first: ① to open an account with a securities firm; ② to have at least 1000.10 yuan in the account (0.10 yuan is the transaction fee).
Let’s take a look at how the yield of treasury bond reverse repurchase is calculated: yield = transaction amountYieldInterest days / 365
This formula should be very easy to understand, because interest rates are annualized rates, so they should be divided by 365 days
Focus on the interest days, which are calculated according to the actual capital occupation days.
Just as we said, we have to wait one more trading day for the withdrawal of treasury bond reverse repurchase, right?
It’s easy to be embarrassed. If you get paid on Friday, you can withdraw cash next Monday. Isn’t that a waste? Don’t worry. The state is very considerate for us ordinary investors. The interest is calculated according to the actual occupation days, that is, even if it is one day, the interest will be calculated according to three days on weekends.
Demonstration of specific operation
Well, the basic knowledge of treasury bond reverse repurchase will be introduced here, and the specific operation methods are as follows:
Demonstrate the operation interface of Huatai Securities mobile app
In the trading interface of the menu bar, there is a reverse repurchase. Click in [view all treasury bond financing products]
After going in, we will see all the Treasury bond financial products of Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Let’s focus on the first, second and fifth columns.
The first column: product name, you can see the number of days of fund occupation, for example, r-001, fund occupation for 1 day. R-028 funds occupied for 28 days.
The second column: Annualized rate of return refers to the interest given by the current market. The interest rate is variable, according to the capital demand of the market.
For example, as shown in the screenshot, the interest rate is 3.3% for one day and 3.8% for 28 days.
The fifth column is the interest days, which is easy to understand. R-001, if the money is lent out for one day, it will give you one day’s interest. R-002, if the money is borrowed for two days, it will give you two-day interest. and so on.
Take the screenshot of reverse repurchase operation on May 14, 2018 to show you.
This set of screenshots takes a little longer than now, but the operation process is the same.
What is the interest rate at the time of placing an order? The interest rate is the interest rate for the time the funds are occupied. As the saying goes, fixed interest rate. That is to say, you can understand it as “guaranteed principal and interest”.
How much is your income, the moment you place an order, the handling fee is 7 cents.
When we talk about reverse repurchase, small partners may think, the income is not high, only 3.2%, which is not much better than yu’ebao.
Here’s a way to let the annualized rate of return on reverse repurchase exceed 4.0%, which is no worse than bank financing.
It should be noted that many bank financial products refer to the expected rate of return. The implied meaning is not guaranteed to be achieved, while some products are not guaranteed to break even. They only tell you that the investment risks are high, medium and low.
What is the specific operation? In fact, it is very simple. As we have said before, after the analysis of historical data, the return on reverse repurchase will be high at the end of the year, the end of the quarter and the end of the month. We can grasp this feature to maximize the revenue
Time return portfolio strategy
This combination is the time combination of [r-001, r-002, r-003] and [r-014, r-028].
Let me give you a simple example of the operation at the end of April
The annualized rate of return will rise every time it is close to the end of the month. From April 20 to April 27, only r-001 is involved. Why? As can be seen from the chart, the annualized yield can reach 6% in these days, the highest is 12%, and the highest is 9% on April 26. However, there will be a holiday on the 28th. Interest rates will fall again next month.
Therefore, the highest r-028 was 4.46% on April 27
You don’t have to sell at the high point. No one knows where the high point is. As long as the yield is more than 4%, you will have exceeded yu’ebao.
A screenshot of revenue at that time
We don’t know when the high point of the day’s reverse repurchase is. After data back testing, we can see that the high point is usually before 10:00 a.m. and after 2:00 p.m., so you can take a look around this time. You don’t need to keep an eye on the plate.
The above is the use of the simplest treasury bond reverse repurchase financial products, according to the law of the market analysis + strategy, to achieve maximum revenue.