Eth technical team: eth2 phase 0, it’s time to start!

Time:2022-3-21

Eth technical team: eth2 phase 0, it's time to start!

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Eth technical team: eth2 phase 0, it's time to start!

In the next few weeks, eth2 0 related news will gradually increase. You will learn from this articleETH2. Status of 0 release

No matter how high L2 is expected at this stage, it hardly affects Ethereum’s economic model, only eth2 0 will really move to the cake, which will greatly affect the price and pattern of Ethereum.

Eth technical team: eth2 phase 0, it's time to start!

Iris @ chinadefi: before you start, you should understand the impact of beacon chain on eth2 What does 0 mean?

Beacon chain is eth2 0 is the first component of the delivery plan. An eth2 in 18 0 system architecture diagram shows the importance of beacon chain, in which eth2 0 is delivered from top to bottom:

Eth technical team: eth2 phase 0, it's time to start!

Layer 1: POW main chain – that is, the currently running eth1 0

Layer 2: beacon chain – collaboration layer (phase 0);

Layer 3: fragment chain – data layer (phase 1);

Layer 4: virtual machine – execution layer (phase 2).

There will be an Ethereum chain of h1.0 to complete, but there will be one Ethereum chain of h1.0 to complete 0 chain and eth2 0 (new beacon chain). The user can set eth1 Eth on 0 chain is migrated to eth2 0 on the chain and become a verifier. But note that eth2 The coins on the 0 chain cannot be migrated back to eth1 for the time being 0 is on the chain.

Beacon chain needs 16384 verifiers to start, that is, 16384 * 32 eth in total. The verifier’s reward cannot be transferred until phase 2 is realized, because the execution layer is needed to realize the execution of the state. In phase 0, all user transactions and smart contract computing tasks are still in eth1 Execute on 0.

The R & D and testing of beacon chain are almost over, and Ethereum team announced the completion of the detailed R & D and testing, eth2 0 is finally coming!

In the past nine months, we have tested this. This year began with a large, long-running independent client test network: sapphire, topaz and onyx networks run by prymatic labs. In April, there were small multi client networks: schlesi, witti and Altona – all named after subway stations, consistent with the tradition of Ethereum test network.

Ben Edgington provided advice on eth2 of consensys. Coindesk’s “investment: Ethereum economy” event was held on October 14.

Then there is the large medalla test network. Named after medalla Milagrosa of Buenos Aires metro station, it has been running for more than two months, involving the implementation of four different clients during this period. It runs to today, with the active participation of more than 50000 verifiers, making it one of the largest decentralized consensus networks.

Progress has not been smooth. A few days after the launch of medalla test network, one of the customers encountered a serious problem and the chain was interrupted for several days. But this is the purpose of the test network. We used a lot of experience to restore the operation of the chain.

Among them, the diversity of clients is very important. If we want beacon chain to be elastic, no client implementation can dominate. As Danny Ryan, a core researcher at the Ethereum foundation, wrote, “events in medalla have been amplified due to the failure of major Prysm customers. As a community, we must consciously seek remedies as we move towards the main network.”

When beacon chain was released, there are currently four high-quality customers that have been audited and tested to run: teku, lighthouse, nimbus and Prysm. Each has its own style and target user group. For example, teku, consensys’ eth2 0 client, designed and built mainly considering institutions and professionals (although I will run it at home), and provides additional security tools, such as remote signature service and slash prevention service.

Beacon chain will have real rewards and punishments. We simply can’t use the test network to simulate these.

The client group also learned to reach a consensus on a common standard for migrating information between implementations. This enables the stack to safely and quickly switch between clients, and will greatly help in the recovery of future accidents.

“Skin in game”

Perhaps the biggest lesson? In the network without incentive, it is difficult to faithfully copy the equity certificate. Participating in these test networks is completely free, which is simply unrealistic. On the test network, stack can ignore its nodes without any real consequences. They can register thousands of validators, then turn them off and make a take, but they will never join the network.

In the real beacon chain, there is really great value in the stack. We hope that the behavior of users will be very different.

That’s why it’s time to use beacon chains. We have done everything possible to test all other aspects: the deposit contract has been officially verified; Deposit instruments have been approved; The specification has been reviewed; Beacon chain has been formally modeled; Node discovery protocol has been approved; The network protocol has been reviewed; Encryption economics has been simulated; We are running incentive attack networks; We have been doing fuzzy testing; Each client has undergone at least one third-party security audit. Last year, hundreds of pairs of eyes carefully examined the whole process.

However, the real beacon chain will have real reward and punishment mechanisms, and we simply can’t use the test network to simulate these.

In terms of rewards, since at least 16384 separate 32 eth stacks are required (one stack is a verifier), the total annual revenue of verification on the beacon chain exceeds 20%. Even in this exciting era of the return of defi, this is quite remarkable.

The punishment will not be particularly heavy. As long as you can ensure that the verifier is online at least half the time, you won’t lose the take unless in extreme cases. Moreover, as long as you follow the rules, you can get enough protection to ensure that your take will not be cut.

We’ve tested these things as much as we can in the lab: now it’s time to run it online. The Ethereum 2.0 roadmap has been carefully divided into multiple phases, so we can independently try this new and ambitious proof of interest mechanism before phase 0.

Therefore, in the worst case, even if a catastrophic failure or attack affects most of the stackers, there is always a chance to agree to roll back the data on the chain without any chain reaction.

We plan to conduct another zinken test network drill in mid October. Shortly after that, I expect to deploy the deposit contract, and the generation of the target beacon chain will be completed in about six weeks.

promise

Stacking, not for everyone from the beginning.

One reason is that the requirements for technology may be high. Stacker needs to keep the server running as close to 7 * 24 hours as possible. They need to keep the system safe and always pay attention to client software updates. For those who have no confidence in their hosting nodes, there are many third-party services available. Within consensys, we provide codefi stacking, a white label turnkey solution, for enterprises that want to get involved in Ethereum 2.0.

Another thing to note is that once you enter, you have to work hard for a long time. From the start, the stacker can stop verifying and freeze their stakes and rewards if they want. However, ETH will remain on the beacon chain until the delivery of phase 1.5 of the ETH 2.0 roadmap.

Phase 1.5 is that the current Ethereum chain and all its accounts and contracts enter eth2 Point in time for 0. Only after that can risk takers claim rewards and obtain benefits. Until then, you can’t get any money back. The work in phase 1.5 is progressing smoothly, but there is no fixed delivery schedule. It may be a few years.