In the past two days, because of testing in Linux, the system of Linux was broken first, and then the boot was broken after reinstalling the Linux system. In the process of repairing the boot, the win8 system of the machine was damaged. After repairing the boot and reinstalling Linux again, Linux can access it. After reinstalling the windows system, it still can’t, and the boot part can’t either. From my experience, it can be seen that using Linux as a daily system has great risks, because its permissions are very high and the dependence of some software may modify the dependency Library of the local interface. After modification, it is very easy to make the interface unresponsive. You must be careful.
When we are installing the system, the first thing is to enter the BIOS setting interface of the computer first. What is the BIOS?
BIOS is the abbreviation of basic input output system. It means basic input output system. It is a system between hardware and operating system. In essence, BIOS is a software, which is integrated on the main board. Intel later upgraded the BIOS specification, and the BIOS was upgraded to UEFI BIOS. The new computer generally uses UEFI BIOS, and can be configured as a traditional BIOS, also known as legacy.
When using UEFI BIOS, UEFI needs to access EFI partition and look for boot file of operating system.
During the installation, there is also a secure boot option. This option itself is for security, but Microsoft has evolved into a tool to prevent changing the pre installed windows system to other systems. Therefore, it is recommended to turn off this option.
Use fdisk-l in the Linux system I can enter to check the partition of hard disk:
[email protected]:/boot# fdisk -l /dev/sda Disk /dev/sda: 465.8 GiB, 500107862016 bytes, 976773168 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes Disklabel type: gpt Disk identifier: 7FB53ABC-61C6-43F7-B32D-2EC645A394CA Device Start End Sectors Size Type /dev/sda1 2048 2050047 2048000 1000M BIOS boot /dev/sda2 2050048 2582527 532480 260M EFI System /dev/sda3 2582528 2844671 262144 128M Microsoft reserved /dev/sda4 2844672 317433855 314589184 150G Microsoft basic data /dev/sda5 317435904 527149055 209713152 100G Microsoft basic data /dev/sda6 527151104 736864255 209713152 100G Microsoft basic data /dev/sda7 736866304 841721855 104855552 50G Microsoft basic data /dev/sda8 841723904 946579455 104855552 50G Microsoft basic data /dev/sda9 946581504 976773119 30191616 14.4G Windows recovery environment
Use the parted command to view the current partition situation, and enter the P command after parted
[email protected]:/boot# parted GNU Parted 3.2 Using /dev/sda Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands. (parted) p Model: ATA ST500LM021-1KJ15 (scsi) Disk /dev/sda: 500GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 1049kB 1050MB 1049MB hidden, bios_grub 2 1050MB 1322MB 273MB fat32 EFI system partition boot, esp 3 1322MB 1456MB 134MB Microsoft reserved partition msftres 4 1456MB 163GB 161GB ntfs Basic data partition msftdata 5 163GB 270GB 107GB ext4 Basic data partition msftdata 6 270GB 377GB 107GB ntfs Basic data partition msftdata 7 377GB 431GB 53.7GB ntfs Basic data partition msftdata 8 431GB 485GB 53.7GB ntfs Basic data partition msftdata 9 485GB 500GB 15.5GB ntfs hidden, diag
Disklabel type: gpt
Partition table: GPT means that the partition table is GPT. GPT replaces the traditional MBR. Using GPT can support more than 2T of larger hard disks, and MBR will not work. Therefore, under the guidance of UEFI, GPT partition tables are used
The value in my other computer is DOS
The first partition / dev / sda1 is BIOS boot. The flags are hidden and BIOS grub. Under traditional BIOS legacy, if the hard disk uses GPT partition table, you need to create such a BIOS boot partition
The second partition, / dev / sda2, is EFI system, and flags are boot and esp. this is the ESP partition mentioned earlier. The file system is FAT32, which means that the boot program of the system will be called from this partition in UEFI mode
/Dev / sda5 is the partition where I install Linux system. It is mounted to the root directory and the file system is ext4
Other partitions are the ones that computers buy. They are related to win system
Use lsblk to list block device information – F to display the file system
[email protected]:/boot# lsblk -f NAME FSTYPE LABEL UUID MOUNTPOINT sda ├─sda1 ├─sda2 vfat SYSTEM_DRV B467-E8A8 ├─sda3 ├─sda4 ntfs Windows8_OS 8A461C98461C875B /media/tao/Windows8_OS ├─sda5 ext4 e297ae56-7c17-48ea-aac5-f26c1e5cad84 / ├ - sda6 NTFS entertainment 7c387f10387ec8a2 / media / Tao / Entertainment ├ - sda7 NTFS office cc5a23c35a23a8e2 / media / Tao / Office ├ - sda8 NTFS software 4e8cef168ceef6fd / media / Tao / software └─sda9 ntfs Lenovo_Recovery CE3C64723C64578B