186 key words and functions that must be mastered in learning programming (py form processing version)

Time:2021-10-25
Indexes english chinese explain effect
1 abstract class abstract class Abstract classes cannot create objects. They are mainly used to create subclasses. Abstract classes in Java are defined using the abstract modifier.
2 abstract data type ADT Abstract data type Abstract classes cannot create objects. They are mainly used to create subclasses. Abstract classes in Java are defined using the abstract modifier.
3 access specifier Access identifier Used for method or variable definition, which defines which classes can access the method or variable. Access identifiers in Java include public, protected and private. The default visibility of a method or variable that does not have access to an identifier modifier is “package”.
4 activation record Activity record The activity record contains all the information necessary to realize the subroutine call, including parameter values, local variables in the subroutine and the return address of the computer at the end of the subroutine call. The activity record is stored in the stack, which makes it possible for multiple subroutine calls to be active at the same time. This is very important for recursion. When recursion, multiple calls to the same subroutine require simultaneous activation.
5 actual parameter Argument The activity record contains all the information necessary to realize the subroutine call, including parameter values, local variables in the subroutine and the return address of the computer at the end of the subroutine call. The activity record is stored in the stack, which makes it possible for multiple subroutine calls to be active at the same time. This is very important for recursion. When recursion, multiple calls to the same subroutine require simultaneous activation.
6 address address Each location in computer memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are arranged by serial number. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Address is used when storing or reading memory information.
7 algorithm algorithm Each location in computer memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are arranged by serial number. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Address is used when storing or reading memory information.
8 alpha color component Alpha color composition Each location in computer memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are arranged by serial number. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Address is used when storing or reading memory information.
9 API Application programming interface. Interface description for the software package or toolbox. The API contains all classes or subroutines in the toolbox and their instructions.
10 Applet Application programming interface. Interface description for the software package or toolbox. The API contains all classes or subroutines in the toolbox and their instructions.
11 animation animation A group of static pictures are displayed quickly to show the dynamic effect. Each still picture is called a frame. In Java, animation is usually driven by timer objects. Each time the timer triggers, the next frame of the animation is displayed.
12 antialiasing Anti aliasing When graphics and text are displayed in pixels, you can reduce the “aliasing” effect by adjusting the color of pixels. When anti aliasing drawing, the graphic only covers a part of the pixel, and the color of the graphic is mixed with the color before the pixel. The degree of blending is determined by how many pixels are covered.
13 array array A sequential list of elements. In the list, each element can be identified by its own index, that is, sequence number. In Java, all elements in an array must be of the same type, which is also called the base type of the array. Array is a random access data structure, that is, you can directly access any element in the array at any time.
14 array type Array type A sequential list of elements. In the list, each element can be identified by its own index, that is, sequence number. In Java, all elements in an array must be of the same type, which is also called the base type of the array. Array is a random access data structure, that is, you can directly access any element in the array at any time.
15 assignment statement Assignment statement In a computer program, a statement that reads or calculates values and stores them in variables. The form of assignment statement in Java is: variable name = expression.
16 asynchronous event Asynchronous event An asynchronous event is an event that occurs at an unpredictable time and cannot be controlled by a computer program. User input events such as mouse clicks and buttons are asynchronous.
17 ASCII code American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. ASCII code only supports 128 characters, and does not support accented characters, non English characters, special symbols or ideograms of non character languages, such as Chinese. Java uses a larger and more complete Unicode encoding to process characters.
18 base case Baseline conditions American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. ASCII code only supports 128 characters, and does not support accented characters, non English characters, special symbols or ideograms of non character languages, such as Chinese. Java uses a larger and more complete Unicode encoding to process characters.
19 binary number Binary number American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. ASCII code only supports 128 characters, and does not support accented characters, non English characters, special symbols or ideograms of non character languages, such as Chinese. Java uses a larger and more complete Unicode encoding to process characters.
19 binary tree Binary tree Binary tree is a chained data structure. It can be an empty tree, or it can be composed of two smaller binary trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to two subtrees. These two smaller binary trees are called left subtree and right subtree.
21 bit Bit Binary tree is a chained data structure. It can be an empty tree, or it can be composed of two smaller binary trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to two subtrees. These two smaller binary trees are called left subtree and right subtree.
22 black box Black box Binary tree is a chained data structure. It can be an empty tree, or it can be composed of two smaller binary trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to two subtrees. These two smaller binary trees are called left subtree and right subtree.
23 block block In Java programming, a set of statements surrounded by curly braces ({}) is called a block. A (code) block is used to combine a group of statements into a single statement. A block can be empty, indicating that it does not contain any statements, that is, a pair of empty curly braces.
24 blocking operation Blocking operation An operation that needs to wait for certain events to occur is called a “blocking” operation, such as reading data from a network connection. The thread performing the blocking operation will remain in the “blocking” state until the event occurs. A thread cannot execute any instructions when it is blocked. Other threads in the program can continue to execute.
25 blocking queue Blocking queue When the blocking queue is empty, the out of queue operation will cause blocking until a new member in the queue is added. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queueing operation will also cause blocking when the queue is full.
26 bottom-up design Bottom up design When the blocking queue is empty, the out of queue operation will cause blocking until a new member in the queue is added. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queueing operation will also cause blocking when the queue is full.
27 Bufferedimage class When the blocking queue is empty, the out of queue operation will cause blocking until a new member in the queue is added. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queueing operation will also cause blocking when the queue is full.
28 branch branch Branch is a control structure. The computer selects from two or more different execution paths through branch. Java has two branch statements: if statement and switch statement.
29 byte byte A byte is an 8-bit memory unit. A byte can hold 8 bits of binary numbers.
30 bytecode Bytecode “Java bytecode” is a common name for the Java virtual machine language. The Java program is compiled into Java bytecode, which is executed by the JVM.
31 charset character set “Java bytecode” is a common name for the Java virtual machine language. The Java program is compiled into Java bytecode, which is executed by the JVM.
32 checked exception Tested abnormality In Java, the detected exception must be handled. It can be caught by the try catch statement or thrown by the throw statement on the method. If the checked exception is not handled in these two ways, a syntax error is reported.
33 class class Class is the basic programming unit of Java. A class is a collection of static methods, non static methods, and variables. Static members are part of the class itself. Non static or “instance” members are the blueprint for creating objects, and the resulting objects “belong to” the class.
34 Class variable) and class methods Class variable Class is the basic programming unit of Java. A class is a collection of static methods, non static methods, and variables. Static members are part of the class itself. Non static or “instance” members are the blueprint for creating objects, and the resulting objects “belong to” the class.
35 client/server Client / server A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
36 command-line interface Command line interface A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
37 comment notes A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
38 compiler compiler A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
39 component assembly Component is a general term for GUI visual elements, including windows, buttons or menus. In Java, a component is represented as an object created by a subclass of java.awt.component.
40 constructor Constructor Class is a special subroutine, which is mainly used to create class objects. Constructors are generally called using the new operator and are not usually regarded as “methods”.
41 container container For components such as JPanel, the container can contain other GUI components. You can add components to a container by calling its add () method.
42 contract of a method Method contract Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
43 control structure control structure Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
44 CPU Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
45 data structure data structure Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
46 deadlock deadlock Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
47 default method Default method Method in Java 8 interface, which provides its own implementation. All interfaces that implement the default method can use the default implementation, but the default method cannot be overridden. Mark the default method with the default reserved word. Java 7 does not support default methods.
47 default package Default package The default package does not have a package name. Classes that are not declared in a package with a name belong to the default package.
49 definite assignment definitely assigned In a program, variables must be assigned before they are used. Local variables can only be used legally after assignment. In order to meet this requirement, the compiler must check the assignment of variables from the beginning of declaration to each path used.
50 deprecated Discard Indicates that it has been discarded, but it is still retained for sequential compatibility. Deprecated Java classes or methods are still part of the Java language, but are not recommended for use in new code. In future versions of Java, deprecated content will be removed.
51 dialog box dialog box Dialog box is a new form created by relying on other forms. Pop up dialog boxes are usually used to obtain user information or display messages. In the swing API, dialog boxes represent objects created for jdialog.
52 distributed computing Distributed computing Dialog box is a new form created by relying on other forms. Pop up dialog boxes are usually used to obtain user information or display messages. In the swing API, dialog boxes represent objects created for jdialog.
53 dummy parameter Virtual parameter When calling a subroutine, it is used to replace the identifier of the actual incoming parameter. Virtual parameters are also called “formal parameters” (sometimes “argument” is used to represent arguments, and virtual parameters are also called “parameters”).
54 enum Enumeration type. The definition of an enumeration type lists all possible values of that type. In Java, an enumeration type is a class, and all possible values are objects.
55 event event In GUI programming, events refer to operations that occur outside the program control, such as clicking the mouse. The program must respond to events that occur.
56 exception abnormal Errors or exceptions outside the program control process. In Java, exceptions are represented as throwable objects, which can be caught and handled by try.. catch statements.
57 fetch-and-execute cycle Get – execution cycle Also called instruction cycle. Refers to the process by which the CPU executes machine language programs. The CPU fetches (i.e., reads) instructions from memory, executes (runs) instructions, and then recycles and repeats the process.
58 flag sign A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
59 formal parameter Formal parameters A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
60 frame frame A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
61 function function A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
62 garbage collection garbage collection A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
63 generic programming Generic Programming The code written is not limited to a single data type, but can adapt to a variety of data types. The Java collection framework and other classes that use similar techniques are examples of generic programming.
64 Getter method Class, which is used to read the value of a property of the class. Typically, attributes represent the values of some instance variables. By convention, the getter method is named getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
65 global variable global variable Class, which is used to read the value of a property of the class. Typically, attributes represent the values of some instance variables. By convention, the getter method is named getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
66 graphics context Graphics context Class, which is used to read the value of a property of the class. Typically, attributes represent the values of some instance variables. By convention, the getter method is named getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
67 GUI Graphical user interface is a modern way of interaction with computer. The computer displays interface components such as buttons and menus on the display through the GUI, and users can interact with them by clicking with the mouse.
68 hash table Hashtable An optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address the object stores is determined by its own hash code. The address integer value can be calculated efficiently through the content of the object.
69 heap heap An optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address the object stores is determined by its own hash code. The address integer value can be calculated efficiently through the content of the object.
70 high level language high-level language An optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address the object stores is determined by its own hash code. The address integer value can be calculated efficiently through the content of the object.
71 HSB A color system. The color is represented by three values (in Java, the actual value is between 0.0 and 1.0). Represent hue, saturation and brightness respectively.
72 IDE Integrated development environment. The programming environment with graphical user interface integrates various tools for creating, editing and executing programs.
73 identifier identifier A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
74 index Index number A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
75 implementation realization A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
76 immutable object Immutable object A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
77 infinite loop Infinite loop A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
78 inheritence inherit One class can inherit from another. Inheritors inherit data and behavior from the parent class.
79 instance of a class Class An object belonging to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, the object created by the constructor in the class belongs to this class.
80 instance method Example method An object belonging to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, the object created by the constructor in the class belongs to this class.
81 instance variable Instance variable An object belonging to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, the object created by the constructor in the class belongs to this class.
82 interface Interface A general term for how to use black boxes such as subroutines. The interface does not provide any information about what happens inside it. “Interface” is also a reserved word in Java. In this sense, an interface is a type that defines one or more abstract methods. The object implementing the interface must provide the definition of these methods.
83 interpreter interpreter A computer program that executes programs written in a programming language. By reading instructions from the program one by one and then executing them one by one (translating the instructions into equivalent machine language).
84 I/O Input / output. Communication between computer programs and other parts, such as displaying data to users, obtaining information from users, reading and writing files, sending and obtaining data through the network.
85 iterator iterator An object associated with a collection such as list or set. Can be used to traverse the collection. The iterator accesses each element in the collection in turn.
86 Java Collection Framework JCF Java collection framework An object associated with a collection such as list or set. Can be used to traverse the collection. The iterator accesses each element in the collection in turn.
87 JavaFX New application GUI toolset. Recommended in Java 8. JavaFX is beyond the scope of this book.
88 JDK Java development toolset. Basic software that supports compiling and running Java programs. The JDK contains the command-line programming environment and JRE. To compile java source code or execute precompiled programs, you need to use JDK.
89 Java Runtime Environment JRE Java runtime environment. Supports running compiled standard Java programs. JRE includes a Java virtual machine and all standard Java classes.
90 just-in-time compiler Just in time compiler A combination of an interpreter and a compiler that can be compiled while interpreting a part of a program. Next, the execution of this part of the program is faster than the first run. This can greatly improve the execution speed. Modern JVMs use just in time compilers.
91 JVM Java virtual machine. A virtual machine that executes Java bytecode as a machine language. Also called a computer program that parses bytecode. To run a java program on a computer, you need to use a JVM.
92 layout manager Layout manager The object responsible for the layout of components in the container. Some of the operations performed include setting the size and location. Different types of layout managers implement different layout strategies.
93 linked data structure Linked data structure A set of object data linked by pointers. These pointers are stored in the instance variables of the object. Linked data structures include linked lists and binary trees.
94 linked list Linked list A set of object data linked by pointers. These pointers are stored in the instance variables of the object. Linked data structures include linked lists and binary trees.
95 listener monitor In GUI programming, you can register trigger notifications of specific events with objects. Therefore, it can be said that the object is “listening” to these events.
96 literal written words A sequence of characters typed in a program that represents constant values. For example, ‘a’ is a constant character when a appears in a java program.
97 Location in memory Computer memory consists of a series of locations. These locations are numbered sequentially, and the number identifying a specific location is called the address of the location.
98 local variable Local variable Variables declared inside a method can only be used inside the method. The validity of a variable declared in a code block starts at the declaration and ends at the end of the code block.
99 loop loop A control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides
3 Species cycle A control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides
100 loop control variable Cyclic control variable A control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides
101 machine language machine language A programming language consisting of instructions that a computer can execute directly. Instructions in machine language are encoded into binary numbers. Each type of computer has its own machine language. Programs written in other languages must be translated into the machine language of the calculation before they can be executed on it.
102 main memory Main memory Programs and data can be stored in the main memory of the computer, which can be accessed directly by the CPU. Other forms of memory, such as disk drives, can also store information, but only the main memory can be accessed directly by the CPU. The programs and data in the disk partition can only be accessed by the CPU when they are copied to memory.
103 map A mapping array. This data structure associates an object in a collection with all objects in a set. In Java, a map is represented by a generic interface map.
104 member variable Member variable A variable defined in a class, but does not belong to any method. Member variables are different from local variables, which are defined in a method.
105 memory Memory A variable defined in a class, but does not belong to any method. Member variables are different from local variables, which are defined in a method.
106 method method Another term for subroutines, used in object-oriented programming. Method refers to a subroutine contained in a class or object.
107 module modular Another term for subroutines, used in object-oriented programming. Method refers to a subroutine contained in a class or object.
108 multitasking Multitasking Perform multiple programming tasks at once. Either quickly switch back and forth between multiple tasks, or execute multiple tasks one by one at the same time.
109 multiprocessing Multiple processing Multiple processors are used for multitasking. In this way, multiple tasks can be performed one by one at the same time.
110 mutual exclusion mutex Prevent two threads from accessing the same resource at the same time. In Java, this method applies to multiple threads accessing resources in synchronous methods or synchronous statements at the same time. Mutual exclusion can prevent race conditions, but may cause deadlocks.
111 MVC pattern MVC mode Model view controller mode. A strategy for dividing responsibilities in GUI components. The model represents the data of the component, the view refers to the display of the model on the screen, and the controller is responsible for responding to model change events. In MVC mode, these responsibilities are handled by different objects.
112 NaN Non numerical Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
113 node node Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
114 null Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
115 numerical analysis numerical analysis Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
116 off-by-one error Almost one error A common error in processing when an extra element is added or subtracted. It is usually caused by technical error or premature stop or over execution due to other reasons.
117 object object An entity in a computer program with data (variables) and behavior (Methods). Objects in Java must be created with a class as a template. The class to which the object belongs determines the classes and methods contained in the object.
118 object type object type Values of this type are objects, not underlying types. Classes and interfaces are object types.
119 Object-Oriented Programming OOP Object oriented programming. A method of computer programming and implementation. OOP uses classes and objects to create and represent entities and interactions between entities.
120 operating system operating system Basic software that runs all the time in a computer. Computers without an operating system cannot work. The operating system consists of Linux, Mac OS and windows vista.
121 operator Operator Basic software that runs all the time in a computer. Computers without an operating system cannot work. The operating system consists of Linux, Mac OS and windows vista.
122 Overloading of operators The same operator can be used on different types of data. For example, the “+” operation can be applied to both numeric and character types.
123 Overloading of method names The same operator can be used on different types of data. For example, the “+” operation can be applied to both numeric and character types.
124 Overriding rewrite Redefine in subclasses. In the subclass, redefine the method inherited from the parent class. The newly defined method is to override the original method.
125 package package In Java, a well-known collection of related classes and sub packages is called a package. For example, Java. AWT and javax. Swing.
126 parallel processing parallel processing In Java, a well-known collection of related classes and sub packages is called a package. For example, Java. AWT and javax. Swing.
127 parameter parameter When calling a subroutine, parameters are used to provide information to the subroutine. Before executing the subroutine code, the “argument” in the subroutine call statement will be assigned to the “virtual parameter” defined by the subroutine.
128 parameterized type Parametric type When calling a subroutine, parameters are used to provide information to the subroutine. Before executing the subroutine code, the “argument” in the subroutine call statement will be assigned to the “virtual parameter” defined by the subroutine.
129 parsing analysis The process of determining the syntax structure of strings in rehearsals. Parsing the string is used to determine whether the syntax of the language is followed in the string; If so, it determines how the string is created according to the syntax.
130 partially full array Partially complete array Arrays are used to store a variety of elements. A partially complete array is represented as an ordinary array with a counter that tracks the number of elements.
131 pixel pixel Refers to the “image element” in the screen or picture. An image consists of rows and columns of pixels. The color of each pixel can be set separately.
132 polymorphism polymorphic Polymorphism means that the meaning of calling an instance method depends on the actual type of object when calling the method. That is, if the variable type is VaR, the statement that calls the method. For example, var.action () depends on the object type pointed to by VAR at execution time, not the type of VaR variable.
133 pointer Pointer Represents the value of an address in computer memory, so it can be regarded as “pointing” to the location with that address. In Java, variables do not have objects; The variable simply points to the location where the object is stored. Pointers are also called “references”.
134 pragmatics Pragmatics A rule of thumb describing how to write a good program. For example, style rules and Program Organization guidelines are all part of programming pragmatics.
135 precedence priority A rule of thumb describing how to write a good program. For example, style rules and Program Organization guidelines are all part of programming pragmatics.
136 precondition Preconditions During the execution of the program, in order for the program to run correctly, the precondition must be determined as true. The preconditions of subroutines refer to the preconditions that must be met in order for subroutines to run correctly. The precondition of a subroutine is usually the restriction on the argument value of the incoming subroutine.
137 priority queue Priority queue A data structure that represents the combination of elements, in which each element has its own “priority”. Priority queues have add and remove operations. You can add elements in any order, but always remove the element with the lowest priority first. (some versions of priority queues remove the highest priority element first)
138 postcondition Post condition At a node of the executing program, the condition evaluates to true. The post condition of the subroutine must be true after the execution of the subroutine. The post condition of a function is usually expressed as the return value of the function.
139 primitive type Basic type The eight built-in basic data types of Java are double, float, long, int, short, byte, Boolean and char. Basic type variables store real values, not pointers to numeric values.
140 priority of a thread thread priority The integer value associated with the thread can affect the execution order of the thread. Higher priority threads execute earlier than lower priority threads.
141 producer/consumer Producer / consumer A classic pattern in parallel programming in which products produced by one or more producers are used by one or more consumers. Producers and consumers are designed to execute in parallel. The difficulty here is how to safely and efficiently distribute non products from producers to consumers. In Java, the producer / consumer pattern is implemented by blocking queues.
142 program program A set of instructions written in a suitable programming language and executed by a computer. When used as a verb, it indicates the action of creating the instruction.
143 programming language programing language A language used to program a computer. The complexity of programming language spans from machine language to high-level language such as Java.
144 protocol agreement A set of specifications that constitute legitimate communication in a specified context. The protocol specifies the legal message, transmission time, expected recovery type, etc.
145 pseudocode Pseudo code Informal algorithm specification. Compared with the actual programming language, pseudo code is closer to English. Moreover, it is usually not necessary to explicitly write out every detail of the process.
146 queue queue A data structure consisting of a set of elements. Data can only be added at one end of the list and removed at the other end of the list.
147 race condition Race condition Possible error sources in parallel programming. An error is raised because a thread changes the program state (such as variable value) that the second program depends on.
148 Random Access Memory RAM Random access memory. Synonym for computer main memory. However, from a technical point of view, RAM means that the same memory address can be accessed at any time. Ram also means that data can be read and written at the same time.
149 recursion recursion Define yourself in your own form. In particular, recursive subroutines can call themselves directly or indirectly through a series of other subroutines. Recursive algorithm works by splitting a complex problem into smaller subproblems. Subproblems can either be solved directly or the same algorithm can be used “recursively”.
150 RGB A color system. Colors are defined by three values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). It represents the composition of red, green and blue in the color respectively.
151 reference quote A color system. Colors are defined by three values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). It represents the composition of red, green and blue in the color respectively.
152 return type of a function Function return type A color system. Colors are defined by three values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). It represents the composition of red, green and blue in the color respectively.
153 Keywords (reserved word) Reserved word A sequence of strings that looks like identifiers. However, it cannot be used as an identifier because it has special meaning in the programming language. For example, class and public are reserved words in Java.
154 resource resources Pictures, sounds, text, or data files in programs are resources. The Java resource file and the compiled class file are stored in the same path (class path).
155 robust program Robust program Pictures, sounds, text, or data files in programs are resources. The Java resource file and the compiled class file are stored in the same path (class path).
156 set aggregate There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
157 scope Scope There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
158 semantics semantics There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
159 sentinel value Sentinel value There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
160 Setter method The instance method in the class is used to set some attribute values in the class. Typically, these properties are just instance variable values. By convention, the setter method is named setxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
161 signature of a method Method signature The method name, the number of formal parameters in the method definition, and the type of each formal parameter. The compiler identifies which method is called by the specified subroutine call statement through method signature.
162 socket socket An abstract representation of one end of a connection between two computers on a network. A socket represents a logical connection between computer programs, not a physical connection between computers.
163 stack Stack The list data structure composed of a group of elements can only be at the end of the list, which is also called “stack top”. Adding elements to the stack is called “push into the stack”, and removing elements is called “pop out of the stack”. Stack also refers to the activity record used to implement subroutine calls.
164 standard input Standard input The program reads the standard source of input data, which is represented by the system.in object. Typically, standard input comes from text typed by the user, but standard output can also be redirected to other sources, such as files.
165 standard output standard output The standard target to which the program writes output text, represented by the system. Out object. Typically, standard output is presented to the user, but can also be “redirected” to other targets, such as files. In addition, the system.err object is used to output error messages.
166 state machine State machine A computer model. An abstract “machine” can be in any state in a finite set of states. The machine will determine the behavior according to its own state, and switch the state according to the input or event. The basic logic of GUI program can be expressed as state machine.
167 step-wise refinement Stepwise refinement method An algorithm development technology. Start by outlining the algorithm steps, usually represented by pseudo code, and then fill in the details step by step.
168 stream flow An abstract representation of an input data source or an output data target. Java provides four basic classes for character and binary data input and output streams. These classes form the foundation of the Java I / O API.
169 source code source code Text written in a high-level programming language. Before computer execution, it must be translated into machine language, such as Java bytecode.
170 subclass Subclass A class directly or indirectly inherits other classes, thus inheriting its data and behavior. The former class is called a subclass of the second class.
171 subroutine subroutine A series of program instructions. The subroutine can be “called” by its name. In object-oriented programming, subroutines are also called methods.
172 subroutine call statement Call Statement A program that calls subroutines. When the subroutine call statement is executed, the computer will execute the code inside the subroutine.
173 super A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
174 syntax grammar A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
175 TCP/IP A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
176 this A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
177 thread thread An abstract representation of a series of statements executed one by one. The computer can execute multiple threads in parallel.
178 thread pool Thread pool A set of “worker threads” that can be used to perform tasks. When the task is ready, it can be assigned to threads in the pool. Thread pools typically use blocking queues to store tasks.
179 top-down design Top down design A software design method. Start to take the problem as a whole, then split it into smaller problems, and then refine it gradually until the sub problems can be solved directly.
180 type type The specific type of value. For example, the int type specifies that the integer value can be expressed as a 32-bit binary number. In Java, a type can be a base type, a class name, or an interface name. The type name can be used to define the type of variable, virtual parameters in subroutine and return type of subroutine.
181 type cast Type conversion Casts a value of one type to another. For example, in (int) (6)In math. Random (), (int) is a type conversion operation, which will (6)The floating-point value of math. Random()) was converted to an integer, discarding the decimal part of the real number.
182 Unicode A method of encoding characters into binary numbers. The Unicode character set contains characters from many languages, not just English. The Unicode character set is used internally in Java.
183 URL Global resource locator. The address of a resource on the Internet, such as a web page.
184 variable variable A named memory location (or series of locations) used to store data. Create a variable in the program and assign the name to the variable through the variable declaration statement. Depending on usage, this name can refer to the memory location in the program or store data in the memory address. In Java, variables have types, which can represent the type of data held by variables.
185 wrapper class Packaging Classes like double and integer “wrap” the value of a basic type in an object, which belongs to the wrapper class. In this way, you can also use basic type values where you need to use objects, such as the Java collection framework.
186 eXtensible Markup Language XML Extensible markup language. A very common language with standard syntax and good support. Used to create a text-based data representation.
1 abstract class abstract class Abstract classes cannot create objects. They are mainly used to create subclasses. Abstract classes in Java are defined using the abstract modifier.
2 abstract data type ADT Abstract data type Abstract classes cannot create objects. They are mainly used to create subclasses. Abstract classes in Java are defined using the abstract modifier.
3 access specifier Access identifier Used for method or variable definition, which defines which classes can access the method or variable. Access identifiers in Java include public, protected and private. The default visibility of a method or variable that does not have access to an identifier modifier is “package”.
4 activation record Activity record The activity record contains all the information necessary to realize the subroutine call, including parameter values, local variables in the subroutine and the return address of the computer at the end of the subroutine call. The activity record is stored in the stack, which makes it possible for multiple subroutine calls to be active at the same time. This is very important for recursion. When recursion, multiple calls to the same subroutine require simultaneous activation.
5 actual parameter Argument The activity record contains all the information necessary to realize the subroutine call, including parameter values, local variables in the subroutine and the return address of the computer at the end of the subroutine call. The activity record is stored in the stack, which makes it possible for multiple subroutine calls to be active at the same time. This is very important for recursion. When recursion, multiple calls to the same subroutine require simultaneous activation.
6 address address Each location in computer memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are arranged by serial number. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Address is used when storing or reading memory information.
7 algorithm algorithm Each location in computer memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are arranged by serial number. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Address is used when storing or reading memory information.
8 alpha color component Alpha color composition Each location in computer memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are arranged by serial number. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Address is used when storing or reading memory information.
9 API Application programming interface. Interface description for the software package or toolbox. The API contains all classes or subroutines in the toolbox and their instructions.
10 Applet Application programming interface. Interface description for the software package or toolbox. The API contains all classes or subroutines in the toolbox and their instructions.
11 animation animation A group of static pictures are displayed quickly to show the dynamic effect. Each still picture is called a frame. In Java, animation is usually driven by timer objects. Each time the timer triggers, the next frame of the animation is displayed.
12 antialiasing Anti aliasing When graphics and text are displayed in pixels, you can reduce the “aliasing” effect by adjusting the color of pixels. When anti aliasing drawing, the graphic only covers a part of the pixel, and the color of the graphic is mixed with the color before the pixel. The degree of blending is determined by how many pixels are covered.
13 array array A sequential list of elements. In the list, each element can be identified by its own index, that is, sequence number. In Java, all elements in an array must be of the same type, which is also called the base type of the array. Array is a random access data structure, that is, you can directly access any element in the array at any time.
14 array type Array type A sequential list of elements. In the list, each element can be identified by its own index, that is, sequence number. In Java, all elements in an array must be of the same type, which is also called the base type of the array. Array is a random access data structure, that is, you can directly access any element in the array at any time.
15 assignment statement Assignment statement In a computer program, a statement that reads or calculates values and stores them in variables. The form of assignment statement in Java is: variable name = expression.
16 asynchronous event Asynchronous event An asynchronous event is an event that occurs at an unpredictable time and cannot be controlled by a computer program. User input events such as mouse clicks and buttons are asynchronous.
17 ASCII code American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. ASCII code only supports 128 characters, and does not support accented characters, non English characters, special symbols or ideograms of non character languages, such as Chinese. Java uses a larger and more complete Unicode encoding to process characters.
18 base case Baseline conditions American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. ASCII code only supports 128 characters, and does not support accented characters, non English characters, special symbols or ideograms of non character languages, such as Chinese. Java uses a larger and more complete Unicode encoding to process characters.
19 binary number Binary number American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. ASCII code only supports 128 characters, and does not support accented characters, non English characters, special symbols or ideograms of non character languages, such as Chinese. Java uses a larger and more complete Unicode encoding to process characters.
19 binary tree Binary tree Binary tree is a chained data structure. It can be an empty tree, or it can be composed of two smaller binary trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to two subtrees. These two smaller binary trees are called left subtree and right subtree.
21 bit Bit Binary tree is a chained data structure. It can be an empty tree, or it can be composed of two smaller binary trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to two subtrees. These two smaller binary trees are called left subtree and right subtree.
22 black box Black box Binary tree is a chained data structure. It can be an empty tree, or it can be composed of two smaller binary trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to two subtrees. These two smaller binary trees are called left subtree and right subtree.
23 block block In Java programming, a set of statements surrounded by curly braces ({}) is called a block. A (code) block is used to combine a group of statements into a single statement. A block can be empty, indicating that it does not contain any statements, that is, a pair of empty curly braces.
24 blocking operation Blocking operation An operation that needs to wait for certain events to occur is called a “blocking” operation, such as reading data from a network connection. The thread performing the blocking operation will remain in the “blocking” state until the event occurs. A thread cannot execute any instructions when it is blocked. Other threads in the program can continue to execute.
25 blocking queue Blocking queue When the blocking queue is empty, the out of queue operation will cause blocking until a new member in the queue is added. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queueing operation will also cause blocking when the queue is full.
26 bottom-up design Bottom up design When the blocking queue is empty, the out of queue operation will cause blocking until a new member in the queue is added. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queueing operation will also cause blocking when the queue is full.
27 Bufferedimage class When the blocking queue is empty, the out of queue operation will cause blocking until a new member in the queue is added. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queueing operation will also cause blocking when the queue is full.
28 branch branch Branch is a control structure. The computer selects from two or more different execution paths through branch. Java has two branch statements: if statement and switch statement.
29 byte byte A byte is an 8-bit memory unit. A byte can hold 8 bits of binary numbers.
30 bytecode Bytecode “Java bytecode” is a common name for the Java virtual machine language. The Java program is compiled into Java bytecode, which is executed by the JVM.
31 charset character set “Java bytecode” is a common name for the Java virtual machine language. The Java program is compiled into Java bytecode, which is executed by the JVM.
32 checked exception Tested abnormality In Java, the detected exception must be handled. It can be caught by the try catch statement or thrown by the throw statement on the method. If the checked exception is not handled in these two ways, a syntax error is reported.
33 class class Class is the basic programming unit of Java. A class is a collection of static methods, non static methods, and variables. Static members are part of the class itself. Non static or “instance” members are the blueprint for creating objects, and the resulting objects “belong to” the class.
34 Class variable) and class methods Class variable Class is the basic programming unit of Java. A class is a collection of static methods, non static methods, and variables. Static members are part of the class itself. Non static or “instance” members are the blueprint for creating objects, and the resulting objects “belong to” the class.
35 client/server Client / server A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
36 command-line interface Command line interface A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
37 comment notes A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
38 compiler compiler A network communication mode. Among them, the “server” waits for a known address on the network and waits for the “client” to initiate a connection request to it. This is the basic communication model of TCP / IP protocol.
39 component assembly Component is a general term for GUI visual elements, including windows, buttons or menus. In Java, a component is represented as an object created by a subclass of java.awt.component.
40 constructor Constructor Class is a special subroutine, which is mainly used to create class objects. Constructors are generally called using the new operator and are not usually regarded as “methods”.
41 container container For components such as JPanel, the container can contain other GUI components. You can add components to a container by calling its add () method.
42 contract of a method Method contract Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
43 control structure control structure Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
44 CPU Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
45 data structure data structure Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
46 deadlock deadlock Method interface. It indicates the method and the responsibilities of its caller, how to call the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc annotation of the method.
47 default method Default method Method in Java 8 interface, which provides its own implementation. All interfaces that implement the default method can use the default implementation, but the default method cannot be overridden. Mark the default method with the default reserved word. Java 7 does not support default methods.
47 default package Default package The default package does not have a package name. Classes that are not declared in a package with a name belong to the default package.
49 definite assignment definitely assigned In a program, variables must be assigned before they are used. Local variables can only be used legally after assignment. In order to meet this requirement, the compiler must check the assignment of variables from the beginning of declaration to each path used.
50 deprecated Discard Indicates that it has been discarded, but it is still retained for sequential compatibility. Deprecated Java classes or methods are still part of the Java language, but are not recommended for use in new code. In future versions of Java, deprecated content will be removed.
51 dialog box dialog box Dialog box is a new form created by relying on other forms. Pop up dialog boxes are usually used to obtain user information or display messages. In the swing API, dialog boxes represent objects created for jdialog.
52 distributed computing Distributed computing Dialog box is a new form created by relying on other forms. Pop up dialog boxes are usually used to obtain user information or display messages. In the swing API, dialog boxes represent objects created for jdialog.
53 dummy parameter Virtual parameter When calling a subroutine, it is used to replace the identifier of the actual incoming parameter. Virtual parameters are also called “formal parameters” (sometimes “argument” is used to represent arguments, and virtual parameters are also called “parameters”).
54 enum Enumeration type. The definition of an enumeration type lists all possible values of that type. In Java, an enumeration type is a class, and all possible values are objects.
55 event event In GUI programming, events refer to operations that occur outside the program control, such as clicking the mouse. The program must respond to events that occur.
56 exception abnormal Errors or exceptions outside the program control process. In Java, exceptions are represented as throwable objects, which can be caught and handled by try.. catch statements.
57 fetch-and-execute cycle Get – execution cycle Also called instruction cycle. Refers to the process by which the CPU executes machine language programs. The CPU fetches (i.e., reads) instructions from memory, executes (runs) instructions, and then recycles and repeats the process.
58 flag sign A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
59 formal parameter Formal parameters A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
60 frame frame A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
61 function function A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
62 garbage collection garbage collection A Boolean value. When set to true, it indicates that some conditions have been met or something has happened. A bit in a binary number can be used as a flag.
63 generic programming Generic Programming The code written is not limited to a single data type, but can adapt to a variety of data types. The Java collection framework and other classes that use similar techniques are examples of generic programming.
64 Getter method Class, which is used to read the value of a property of the class. Typically, attributes represent the values of some instance variables. By convention, the getter method is named getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
65 global variable global variable Class, which is used to read the value of a property of the class. Typically, attributes represent the values of some instance variables. By convention, the getter method is named getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
66 graphics context Graphics context Class, which is used to read the value of a property of the class. Typically, attributes represent the values of some instance variables. By convention, the getter method is named getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
67 GUI Graphical user interface is a modern way of interaction with computer. The computer displays interface components such as buttons and menus on the display through the GUI, and users can interact with them by clicking with the mouse.
68 hash table Hashtable An optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address the object stores is determined by its own hash code. The address integer value can be calculated efficiently through the content of the object.
69 heap heap An optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address the object stores is determined by its own hash code. The address integer value can be calculated efficiently through the content of the object.
70 high level language high-level language An optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address the object stores is determined by its own hash code. The address integer value can be calculated efficiently through the content of the object.
71 HSB A color system. The color is represented by three values (in Java, the actual value is between 0.0 and 1.0). Represent hue, saturation and brightness respectively.
72 IDE Integrated development environment. The programming environment with graphical user interface integrates various tools for creating, editing and executing programs.
73 identifier identifier A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
74 index Index number A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
75 implementation realization A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
76 immutable object Immutable object A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
77 infinite loop Infinite loop A set of identifiers that can be used as names in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.
78 inheritence inherit One class can inherit from another. Inheritors inherit data and behavior from the parent class.
79 instance of a class Class An object belonging to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, the object created by the constructor in the class belongs to this class.
80 instance method Example method An object belonging to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, the object created by the constructor in the class belongs to this class.
81 instance variable Instance variable An object belonging to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, the object created by the constructor in the class belongs to this class.
82 interface Interface A general term for how to use black boxes such as subroutines. The interface does not provide any information about what happens inside it. “Interface” is also a reserved word in Java. In this sense, an interface is a type that defines one or more abstract methods. The object implementing the interface must provide the definition of these methods.
83 interpreter interpreter A computer program that executes programs written in a programming language. By reading instructions from the program one by one and then executing them one by one (translating the instructions into equivalent machine language).
84 I/O Input / output. Communication between computer programs and other parts, such as displaying data to users, obtaining information from users, reading and writing files, sending and obtaining data through the network.
85 iterator iterator An object associated with a collection such as list or set. Can be used to traverse the collection. The iterator accesses each element in the collection in turn.
86 Java Collection Framework JCF Java collection framework An object associated with a collection such as list or set. Can be used to traverse the collection. The iterator accesses each element in the collection in turn.
87 JavaFX New application GUI toolset. Recommended in Java 8. JavaFX is beyond the scope of this book.
88 JDK Java development toolset. Basic software that supports compiling and running Java programs. The JDK contains the command-line programming environment and JRE. To compile java source code or execute precompiled programs, you need to use JDK.
89 Java Runtime Environment JRE Java runtime environment. Supports running compiled standard Java programs. JRE includes a Java virtual machine and all standard Java classes.
90 just-in-time compiler Just in time compiler A combination of an interpreter and a compiler that can be compiled while interpreting a part of a program. Next, the execution of this part of the program is faster than the first run. This can greatly improve the execution speed. Modern JVMs use just in time compilers.
91 JVM Java virtual machine. A virtual machine that executes Java bytecode as a machine language. Also called a computer program that parses bytecode. To run a java program on a computer, you need to use a JVM.
92 layout manager Layout manager The object responsible for the layout of components in the container. Some of the operations performed include setting the size and location. Different types of layout managers implement different layout strategies.
93 linked data structure Linked data structure A set of object data linked by pointers. These pointers are stored in the instance variables of the object. Linked data structures include linked lists and binary trees.
94 linked list Linked list A set of object data linked by pointers. These pointers are stored in the instance variables of the object. Linked data structures include linked lists and binary trees.
95 listener monitor In GUI programming, you can register trigger notifications of specific events with objects. Therefore, it can be said that the object is “listening” to these events.
96 literal written words A sequence of characters typed in a program that represents constant values. For example, ‘a’ is a constant character when a appears in a java program.
97 Location in memory Computer memory consists of a series of locations. These locations are numbered sequentially, and the number identifying a specific location is called the address of the location.
98 local variable Local variable Variables declared inside a method can only be used inside the method. The validity of a variable declared in a code block starts at the declaration and ends at the end of the code block.
99 loop loop A control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides
3 Species cycle A control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides
100 loop control variable Cyclic control variable A control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides
101 machine language machine language A programming language consisting of instructions that a computer can execute directly. Instructions in machine language are encoded into binary numbers. Each type of computer has its own machine language. Programs written in other languages must be translated into the machine language of the calculation before they can be executed on it.
102 main memory Main memory Programs and data can be stored in the main memory of the computer, which can be accessed directly by the CPU. Other forms of memory, such as disk drives, can also store information, but only the main memory can be accessed directly by the CPU. The programs and data in the disk partition can only be accessed by the CPU when they are copied to memory.
103 map A mapping array. This data structure associates an object in a collection with all objects in a set. In Java, a map is represented by a generic interface map.
104 member variable Member variable A variable defined in a class, but does not belong to any method. Member variables are different from local variables, which are defined in a method.
105 memory Memory A variable defined in a class, but does not belong to any method. Member variables are different from local variables, which are defined in a method.
106 method method Another term for subroutines, used in object-oriented programming. Method refers to a subroutine contained in a class or object.
107 module modular Another term for subroutines, used in object-oriented programming. Method refers to a subroutine contained in a class or object.
108 multitasking Multitasking Perform multiple programming tasks at once. Either quickly switch back and forth between multiple tasks, or execute multiple tasks one by one at the same time.
109 multiprocessing Multiple processing Multiple processors are used for multitasking. In this way, multiple tasks can be performed one by one at the same time.
110 mutual exclusion mutex Prevent two threads from accessing the same resource at the same time. In Java, this method applies to multiple threads accessing resources in synchronous methods or synchronous statements at the same time. Mutual exclusion can prevent race conditions, but may cause deadlocks.
111 MVC pattern MVC mode Model view controller mode. A strategy for dividing responsibilities in GUI components. The model represents the data of the component, the view refers to the display of the model on the screen, and the controller is responsible for responding to model change events. In MVC mode, these responsibilities are handled by different objects.
112 NaN Non numerical Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
113 node node Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
114 null Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
115 numerical analysis numerical analysis Not a numeric value. Double.nan represents a special double value, which indicates an undefined or illegal value.
116 off-by-one error Almost one error A common error in processing when an extra element is added or subtracted. It is usually caused by technical error or premature stop or over execution due to other reasons.
117 object object An entity in a computer program with data (variables) and behavior (Methods). Objects in Java must be created with a class as a template. The class to which the object belongs determines the classes and methods contained in the object.
118 object type object type Values of this type are objects, not underlying types. Classes and interfaces are object types.
119 Object-Oriented Programming OOP Object oriented programming. A method of computer programming and implementation. OOP uses classes and objects to create and represent entities and interactions between entities.
120 operating system operating system Basic software that runs all the time in a computer. Computers without an operating system cannot work. The operating system consists of Linux, Mac OS and windows vista.
121 operator Operator Basic software that runs all the time in a computer. Computers without an operating system cannot work. The operating system consists of Linux, Mac OS and windows vista.
122 Overloading of operators The same operator can be used on different types of data. For example, the “+” operation can be applied to both numeric and character types.
123 Overloading of method names The same operator can be used on different types of data. For example, the “+” operation can be applied to both numeric and character types.
124 Overriding rewrite Redefine in subclasses. In the subclass, redefine the method inherited from the parent class. The newly defined method is to override the original method.
125 package package In Java, a well-known collection of related classes and sub packages is called a package. For example, Java. AWT and javax. Swing.
126 parallel processing parallel processing In Java, a well-known collection of related classes and sub packages is called a package. For example, Java. AWT and javax. Swing.
127 parameter parameter When calling a subroutine, parameters are used to provide information to the subroutine. Before executing the subroutine code, the “argument” in the subroutine call statement will be assigned to the “virtual parameter” defined by the subroutine.
128 parameterized type Parametric type When calling a subroutine, parameters are used to provide information to the subroutine. Before executing the subroutine code, the “argument” in the subroutine call statement will be assigned to the “virtual parameter” defined by the subroutine.
129 parsing analysis The process of determining the syntax structure of strings in rehearsals. Parsing the string is used to determine whether the syntax of the language is followed in the string; If so, it determines how the string is created according to the syntax.
130 partially full array Partially complete array Arrays are used to store a variety of elements. A partially complete array is represented as an ordinary array with a counter that tracks the number of elements.
131 pixel pixel Refers to the “image element” in the screen or picture. An image consists of rows and columns of pixels. The color of each pixel can be set separately.
132 polymorphism polymorphic Polymorphism means that the meaning of calling an instance method depends on the actual type of object when calling the method. That is, if the variable type is VaR, the statement that calls the method. For example, var.action () depends on the object type pointed to by VAR at execution time, not the type of VaR variable.
133 pointer Pointer Represents the value of an address in computer memory, so it can be regarded as “pointing” to the location with that address. In Java, variables do not have objects; The variable simply points to the location where the object is stored. Pointers are also called “references”.
134 pragmatics Pragmatics A rule of thumb describing how to write a good program. For example, style rules and Program Organization guidelines are all part of programming pragmatics.
135 precedence priority A rule of thumb describing how to write a good program. For example, style rules and Program Organization guidelines are all part of programming pragmatics.
136 precondition Preconditions During the execution of the program, in order for the program to run correctly, the precondition must be determined as true. The preconditions of subroutines refer to the preconditions that must be met in order for subroutines to run correctly. The precondition of a subroutine is usually the restriction on the argument value of the incoming subroutine.
137 priority queue Priority queue A data structure that represents the combination of elements, in which each element has its own “priority”. Priority queues have add and remove operations. You can add elements in any order, but always remove the element with the lowest priority first. (some versions of priority queues remove the highest priority element first)
138 postcondition Post condition At a node of the executing program, the condition evaluates to true. The post condition of the subroutine must be true after the execution of the subroutine. The post condition of a function is usually expressed as the return value of the function.
139 primitive type Basic type The eight built-in basic data types of Java are double, float, long, int, short, byte, Boolean and char. Basic type variables store real values, not pointers to numeric values.
140 priority of a thread thread priority The integer value associated with the thread can affect the execution order of the thread. Higher priority threads execute earlier than lower priority threads.
141 producer/consumer Producer / consumer A classic pattern in parallel programming in which products produced by one or more producers are used by one or more consumers. Producers and consumers are designed to execute in parallel. The difficulty here is how to safely and efficiently distribute non products from producers to consumers. In Java, the producer / consumer pattern is implemented by blocking queues.
142 program program A set of instructions written in a suitable programming language and executed by a computer. When used as a verb, it indicates the action of creating the instruction.
143 programming language programing language A language used to program a computer. The complexity of programming language spans from machine language to high-level language such as Java.
144 protocol agreement A set of specifications that constitute legitimate communication in a specified context. The protocol specifies the legal message, transmission time, expected recovery type, etc.
145 pseudocode Pseudo code Informal algorithm specification. Compared with the actual programming language, pseudo code is closer to English. Moreover, it is usually not necessary to explicitly write out every detail of the process.
146 queue queue A data structure consisting of a set of elements. Data can only be added at one end of the list and removed at the other end of the list.
147 race condition Race condition Possible error sources in parallel programming. An error is raised because a thread changes the program state (such as variable value) that the second program depends on.
148 Random Access Memory RAM Random access memory. Synonym for computer main memory. However, from a technical point of view, RAM means that the same memory address can be accessed at any time. Ram also means that data can be read and written at the same time.
149 recursion recursion Define yourself in your own form. In particular, recursive subroutines can call themselves directly or indirectly through a series of other subroutines. Recursive algorithm works by splitting a complex problem into smaller subproblems. Subproblems can either be solved directly or the same algorithm can be used “recursively”.
150 RGB A color system. Colors are defined by three values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). It represents the composition of red, green and blue in the color respectively.
151 reference quote A color system. Colors are defined by three values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). It represents the composition of red, green and blue in the color respectively.
152 return type of a function Function return type A color system. Colors are defined by three values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). It represents the composition of red, green and blue in the color respectively.
153 Keywords (reserved word) Reserved word A sequence of strings that looks like identifiers. However, it cannot be used as an identifier because it has special meaning in the programming language. For example, class and public are reserved words in Java.
154 resource resources Pictures, sounds, text, or data files in programs are resources. The Java resource file and the compiled class file are stored in the same path (class path).
155 robust program Robust program Pictures, sounds, text, or data files in programs are resources. The Java resource file and the compiled class file are stored in the same path (class path).
156 set aggregate There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
157 scope Scope There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
158 semantics semantics There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
159 sentinel value Sentinel value There is no duplicate set of objects. In Java, a collection is represented by a generic interface set.
160 Setter method The instance method in the class is used to set some attribute values in the class. Typically, these properties are just instance variable values. By convention, the setter method is named setxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.
161 signature of a method Method signature The method name, the number of formal parameters in the method definition, and the type of each formal parameter. The compiler identifies which method is called by the specified subroutine call statement through method signature.
162 socket socket An abstract representation of one end of a connection between two computers on a network. A socket represents a logical connection between computer programs, not a physical connection between computers.
163 stack Stack The list data structure composed of a group of elements can only be at the end of the list, which is also called “stack top”. Adding elements to the stack is called “push into the stack”, and removing elements is called “pop out of the stack”. Stack also refers to the activity record used to implement subroutine calls.
164 standard input Standard input The program reads the standard source of input data, which is represented by the system.in object. Typically, standard input comes from text typed by the user, but standard output can also be redirected to other sources, such as files.
165 standard output standard output The standard target to which the program writes output text, represented by the system. Out object. Typically, standard output is presented to the user, but can also be “redirected” to other targets, such as files. In addition, the system.err object is used to output error messages.
166 state machine State machine A computer model. An abstract “machine” can be in any state in a finite set of states. The machine will determine the behavior according to its own state, and switch the state according to the input or event. The basic logic of GUI program can be expressed as state machine.
167 step-wise refinement Stepwise refinement method An algorithm development technology. Start by outlining the algorithm steps, usually represented by pseudo code, and then fill in the details step by step.
168 stream flow An abstract representation of an input data source or an output data target. Java provides four basic classes for character and binary data input and output streams. These classes form the foundation of the Java I / O API.
169 source code source code Text written in a high-level programming language. Before computer execution, it must be translated into machine language, such as Java bytecode.
170 subclass Subclass A class directly or indirectly inherits other classes, thus inheriting its data and behavior. The former class is called a subclass of the second class.
171 subroutine subroutine A series of program instructions. The subroutine can be “called” by its name. In object-oriented programming, subroutines are also called methods.
172 subroutine call statement Call Statement A program that calls subroutines. When the subroutine call statement is executed, the computer will execute the code inside the subroutine.
173 super A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
174 syntax grammar A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
175 TCP/IP A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
176 this A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object containing the method, which belongs to the parent class of the class where the method is located. Super can access hidden member variables in the parent class, which have the same name as member variables in the child class.
177 thread thread An abstract representation of a series of statements executed one by one. The computer can execute multiple threads in parallel.
178 thread pool Thread pool A set of “worker threads” that can be used to perform tasks. When the task is ready, it can be assigned to threads in the pool. Thread pools typically use blocking queues to store tasks.
179 top-down design Top down design A software design method. Start to take the problem as a whole, then split it into smaller problems, and then refine it gradually until the sub problems can be solved directly.
180 type type The specific type of value. For example, the int type specifies that the integer value can be expressed as a 32-bit binary number. In Java, a type can be a base type, a class name, or an interface name. The type name can be used to define the type of variable, virtual parameters in subroutine and return type of subroutine.
181 type cast Type conversion Casts a value of one type to another. For example, in (int) (6)In math. Random (), (int) is a type conversion operation, which will (6)The floating-point value of math. Random()) was converted to an integer, discarding the decimal part of the real number.
182 Unicode A method of encoding characters into binary numbers. The Unicode character set contains characters from many languages, not just English. The Unicode character set is used internally in Java.
183 URL Global resource locator. The address of a resource on the Internet, such as a web page.
184 variable variable A named memory location (or series of locations) used to store data. Create a variable in the program and assign the name to the variable through the variable declaration statement. Depending on usage, this name can refer to the memory location in the program or store data in the memory address. In Java, variables have types, which can represent the type of data held by variables.
185 wrapper class Packaging Classes like double and integer “wrap” the value of a basic type in an object, which belongs to the wrapper class. In this way, you can also use basic type values where you need to use objects, such as the Java collection framework.
186 eXtensible Markup Language XML Extensible markup language. A very common language with standard syntax and good support. Used to create a text-based data representation.

At the same time, this group of information is composed of:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/Cp…
The web page is extracted and processed by the following code:

import re, os, json

with open('/Users/zszen/Desktop/info.txt', 'r+') as f:
    str = f.read()
    lst = re.split(r'(\d+.*?:)',str)
    del lst[0]
    for k in range(int(len(lst)/2)):
        res = re.split(r'^(\d+)(.*?)(\((.*?)\))?:',lst[k*2])
        if res[4] is None:
            idx = res[1]
            title = '---'
            title_en = res[2]
        else:
            idx = res[1]
            title = res[2]
            title_en = res[4]
        content = lst[k*2+1].replace('\n\n','')
        res = re.split(r'^(.*)\n',content)
        if len(res)>1:
            del res[0]
            content1 = res[0]
            if len(res)>1:
                del res[0]
                content2 = ''.join(res)
                content2 = content2.replace('\n','')
        print(f'{idx}|{title_en}|{title} | {content1} | {content2}')

Recommended Today

Swift advanced (XV) extension

The extension in swift is somewhat similar to the category in OC Extension can beenumeration、structural morphology、class、agreementAdd new features□ you can add methods, calculation attributes, subscripts, (convenient) initializers, nested types, protocols, etc What extensions can’t do:□ original functions cannot be overwritten□ you cannot add storage attributes or add attribute observers to existing attributes□ cannot add parent […]